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RFC 2885
Megaco Protocol version 0.8.
F. Cuervo, N. Greene, C. Huitema, A. Rayhan, B. Rosen, J. Segers. August 2000.

 
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Network Working Group F. Cuervo Request for Comments: 2885 N. Greene Category: Standards Track Nortel Networks C. Huitema Microsoft Corporation A. Rayhan Nortel Networks B. Rosen Marconi J. Segers Lucent Technologies August 2000 Megaco Protocol version 0.8 Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. Abstract This document is common text with Recommendation H.248 as redetermined in Geneva, February 2000. It must be read in conjunction with the Megaco Errata, RFC 2886. A merged document presenting the Megaco protocol with the Errata incorporated will be available shortly. The protocol presented in this document meets the requirements for a media gateway control protocol as presented in RFC 2805. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 1]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. SCOPE..........................................................6 2. REFERENCES.....................................................6 2.1 Normative references..........................................6 2.2 Informative references........................................8 3. DEFINITIONS....................................................9 4. ABBREVIATIONS.................................................10 5. CONVENTIONS...................................................11 6. CONNECTION MODEL..............................................11 6.1 Contexts.....................................................14 6.1.1 Context Attributes and Descriptors....................15 6.1.2 Creating, Deleting and Modifying Contexts.............15 6.2 Terminations.................................................15 6.2.1 Termination Dynamics..................................16 6.2.2 TerminationIDs........................................17 6.2.3 Packages..............................................17 6.2.4 Termination Properties and Descriptors................18 6.2.5 Root Termination......................................20 7. COMMANDS......................................................20 7.1 Descriptors..................................................21 7.1.1 Specifying Parameters.................................21 7.1.2 Modem Descriptor......................................22 7.1.3 Multiplex Descriptor..................................22 7.1.4 Media Descriptor......................................23 7.1.5 Termination State Descriptor..........................23 7.1.6 Stream Descriptor.....................................24 7.1.7 LocalControl Descriptor...............................24 7.1.8 Local and Remote Descriptors..........................25 7.1.9 Events Descriptor.....................................28 7.1.10 EventBuffer Descriptor...............................31 7.1.11 Signals Descriptor...................................31 7.1.12 Audit Descriptor.....................................32 7.1.13 ServiceChange Descriptor.............................33 7.1.14 DigitMap Descriptor..................................33 7.1.15 Statistics Descriptor................................38 7.1.16 Packages Descriptor..................................39 7.1.17 ObservedEvents Descriptor............................39 7.1.18 Topology Descriptor.................................39 7.2 Command Application Programming Interface....................42 7.2.1 Add...................................................43 7.2.2 Modify................................................44 7.2.3 Subtract..............................................45 7.2.4 Move..................................................46 7.2.5 AuditValue............................................47 7.2.6 AuditCapabilities.....................................48 7.2.7 Notify................................................49 7.2.8 ServiceChange.........................................50 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 2]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 7.2.9 Manipulating and Auditing Context Attributes..........54 7.2.10 Generic Command Syntax...............................54 7.3 Command Error Codes..........................................55 8. TRANSACTIONS..................................................56 8.1 Common Parameters............................................58 8.1.1 Transaction Identifiers...............................58 8.1.2 Context Identifiers...................................58 8.2 Transaction Application Programming Interface................58 8.2.1 TransactionRequest....................................59 8.2.2 TransactionReply......................................59 8.2.3 TransactionPending....................................60 8.3 Messages.....................................................61 9. TRANSPORT.....................................................61 9.1 Ordering of Commands.........................................62 9.2 Protection against Restart Avalanche.........................63 10. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS......................................64 10.1 Protection of Protocol Connections..........................64 10.2 Interim AH scheme...........................................65 10.3 Protection of Media Connections.............................66 11. MG-MGC CONTROL INTERFACE....................................66 11.1 Multiple Virtual MGs........................................67 11.2 Cold Start..................................................68 11.3 Negotiation of Protocol Version.............................68 11.4 Failure of an MG............................................69 11.5 Failure of an MGC...........................................69 12. PACKAGE DEFINITION...........................................70 12.1 Guidelines for defining packages............................71 12.1.1 Package..............................................71 12.1.2 Properties...........................................72 12.1.3 Events...............................................72 12.1.4 Signals..............................................73 12.1.5 Statistics...........................................73 12.1.6 Procedures...........................................73 12.2 Guidelines to defining Properties, Statistics and Parameters to Events and Signals.......................................73 12.3 Lists.......................................................74 12.4 Identifiers.................................................74 12.5 Package Registration........................................74 13. IANA CONSIDERATIONS.........................................74 13.1 Packages....................................................74 13.2 Error Codes.................................................75 13.3 ServiceChange Reasons.......................................76 ANNEX A: BINARY ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE).............77 A.1 Coding of wildcards..........................................77 A.2 ASN.1 syntax specification...................................78 A.3 Digit maps and path names....................................94 ANNEX B TEXT ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE)................95 B.1 Coding of wildcards..........................................95 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 3]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 B.2 ABNF specification...........................................95 ANNEX C TAGS FOR MEDIA STREAM PROPERTIES (NORMATIVE)............107 C.1 General Media Attributes....................................107 C.2 Mux Properties..............................................108 C.3 General bearer properties...................................109 C.4 General ATM properties......................................109 C.5 Frame Relay.................................................112 C.6 IP..........................................................113 C.7 ATM AAL2....................................................113 C.8 ATM AAL1....................................................114 C.9 Bearer Capabilities.........................................116 C.10 AAL5 Properties............................................123 C.11 SDP Equivalents............................................124 C.12 H.245......................................................124 ANNEX D TRANSPORT OVER IP (NORMATIVE)...........................125 D.1 Transport over IP/UDP using Application Level Framing.......125 D.1.1 Providing At-Most-Once Functionality.................125 D.1.2 Transaction identifiers and three-way handshake......126 D.1.2.1 Transaction identifiers....................126 D.1.2.2 Three-way handshake........................126 D.1.3 Computing retransmission timers......................127 D.1.4 Provisional responses................................128 D.1.5 Repeating Requests, Responses and Acknowledgements...128 D.2 using TCP..................................................130 D.2.1 Providing the At-Most-Once functionality..........130 D.2.2 Transaction identifiers and three way handshake...130 D.2.3 Computing retransmission timers...................131 D.2.4 Provisional responses.............................131 D.2.5 Ordering of commands..............................131 ANNEX E BASIC PACKAGES..........................................131 E.1 Generic.....................................................131 E.1.1 Properties...........................................132 E.1.2 Events...............................................132 E.1.3 Signals..............................................133 E.1.4 Statistics...........................................133 E.2 Base Root Package...........................................133 E.2.1 Properties...........................................134 E.2.2 Events...............................................135 E.2.3 Signals..............................................135 E.2.4 Statistics...........................................135 E.2.5 Procedures...........................................135 E.3 Tone Generator Package......................................135 E.3.1 Properties...........................................135 E.3.2 Events...............................................136 E.3.3 Signals..............................................136 E.3.4 Statistics...........................................136 E.3.5 Procedures...........................................136 E.4 Tone Detection Package......................................137 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 4]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.4.1 Properties...........................................137 E.4.2 Events...............................................137 E.4.3 Signals..............................................139 E.4.4 Statistics...........................................139 E.4.5 Procedures...........................................139 E.5 Basic DTMF Generator Package................................140 E.5.1 Properties...........................................140 E.5.2 Events...............................................140 E.5.3 Signals..............................................140 E.5.4 Statistics...........................................141 E.5.5 Procedures...........................................141 E.6 DTMF detection Package......................................141 E.6.1 Properties...........................................142 E.6.2 Events...............................................142 E.6.3 Signals..............................................143 E.6.4 Statistics...........................................143 E.6.5 Procedures...........................................143 E.7 Call Progress Tones Generator Package.......................143 E.7.1 Properties...........................................144 E.7.2 Events...............................................144 E.7.3 Signals..............................................144 E.7.4 Statistics...........................................145 E.7.5 Procedures...........................................145 E.8 Call Progress Tones Detection Package.......................145 E.8.1 Properties...........................................145 E.8.2 Events...............................................145 E.8.3 Signals..............................................145 E.8.4 Statistics...........................................145 E.8.5 Procedures...........................................146 E.9 Analog Line Supervision Package.............................146 E.9.1 Properties...........................................146 E.9.2 Events...............................................146 E.9.3 Signals..............................................147 E.9.4 Statistics...........................................148 E.9.5 Procedures...........................................148 E.10 Basic Continuity Package...................................148 E.10.1 Properties..........................................148 E.10.2 Events..............................................148 E.10.3 Signals.............................................149 E.10.4 Statistics..........................................150 E.10.5 Procedures..........................................150 E.11 Network Package............................................150 E.11.1 Properties..........................................150 E.11.2 Events..............................................151 E.11.3 Signals.............................................152 E.11.4 Statistics..........................................152 E.11.5 Procedures..........................................153 E.12 RTP Package...............................................153 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 5]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.12.1 Properties..........................................153 E.12.2 Events..............................................153 E.12.3 Signals.............................................153 E.12.4 Statistics..........................................153 E.12.5 Procedures..........................................154 E.13 TDM Circuit Package........................................154 E.13.1 Properties..........................................155 E.13.2 Events..............................................155 E.13.3 Signals.............................................155 E.13.4 Statistics..........................................156 E.13.5 Procedures..........................................156 APPENDIX A EXAMPLE CALL FLOWS (INFORMATIVE).....................157 A.1 Residential Gateway to Residential Gateway Call.............157 A.1.1 Programming Residential GW Analog Line Terminations for Idle Behavior..............................................157 A.1.2 Collecting Originator Digits and Initiating Termination ...........................................................159 Authors' Addresses..............................................168 Full Copyright Statement........................................170 1. SCOPE This document defines the protocol used between elements of a physically decomposed multimedia gateway. There are no functional differences from a system view between a decomposed gateway, with distributed sub-components potentially on more than one physical device, and a monolithic gateway such as described in H.246. This recommendation does not define how gateways, multipoint control units or integrated voice response units (IVRs) work. Instead it creates a general framework that is suitable for these applications. Packet network interfaces may include IP, ATM or possibly others. The interfaces will support a variety of SCN signalling systems, including tone signalling, ISDN, ISUP, QSIG, and GSM. National variants of these signalling systems will be supported where applicable. The protocol definition in this document is common text with ITU-T Recommendation H.248. It meets the requirements documented in RFC 2805. 2. REFERENCES 2.1 Normative references ITU-T Recommendation H.225.0 (1998): "Call Signalling Protocols and Media Stream Packetization for Packet Based Multimedia Communications Systems". Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 6]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ITU-T Recommendation H.235 (02/98): "Security and encryption for H-Series (H.323 and other H.245-based) multimedia terminals". ITU-T Recommendation H.245 (1998): "Control Protocol for Multimedia Communication". ITU-T Recommendation H.323 (1998): "Packet Based Multimedia Communication Systems". ITU-T Recommendation I.363.1 (08/96), "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification: Type 1 AAL". ITU-T Recommendation I.363.2 (09/97), "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification: Type 2 AAL". ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5 (08/96), "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification: Type 5 AAL". ITU-T Recommendation I.366.1 (06/98), "Segmentation and Reassembly Service Specific Convergence Sublayer for the AAL type 2". ITU-T Recommendation I.366.2 (02/99), "AAL type 2 service specific convergence sublayer for trunking". ITU-T Recommendation I.371 (08/96), "Traffic control and congestion control in B-ISDN". ITU-T Recommendation Q.763 (09/97), "Signalling System No. 7 - ISDN user part formats and codes". ITU-T Recommendation Q.765, "Signalling System No. 7 - Application transport mechanism". ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 (05/98): "Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 1 (DSS 1) - ISDN User-Network Interface Layer 3 Specification for Basic Call Control". ITU-T Recommendation Q.2630.1 (1999), "AAL Type 2 Signalling Protocol (Capability Set 1)". ITU-T Recommendation Q.2931 (10/95), "Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) - Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 2 (DSS 2) - User-Network Interface (UNI) - Layer 3 specification for basic call/connection control". ITU-T Recommendation Q.2941.1 (09/97), "Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 2 - Generic Identifier Transport". Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 7]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ITU-T Recommendation Q.2961 (10/95), "Broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) - Digital subscriber signalling system no.2 (DSS 2) - additional traffic parameters". ITU-T Recommendation Q.2961.2 (06/97), "Digital subscriber signalling system No. 2 - Additional traffic parameters: Support of ATM transfer capability in the broadband bearer capability information element." ITU-T Recommendation X.213 (11/1995), "Information technology - Open System Interconnection - Network service definition plus Amendment 1 (08/1997), Addition of the Internet protocol address format identifier". ITU-T Recommendation V.76 (08/96), "Generic multiplexer using V.42 LAPM-based procedures". ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (1997): "Information technology-Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation". ITU-T Recommendation H.246 (1998), "Interworking of H-series multimedia terminals with H-series multimedia terminals and voice/voiceband terminals on GSTN and ISDN". Rose, M. and D. Cass, "ISO Transport Service on top of the TCP, Version 3", RFC 1006, May 1987. Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997. Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998. Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header", RFC 2402, November 1998. Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998. 2.2 Informative references ITU-T Recommendation E.180/Q.35 (1998): "Technical characteristics of tones for the telephone service". CCITT Recommendation G.711 (1988), "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies". ITU-T Recommendation H.221 (05/99),"Frame structure for a 64 to 1920 kbit/s channel in audiovisual teleservices". Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 8]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ITU-T Recommendation H.223 (1996), "Multiplexing protocol for low bit rate multimedia communication". ITU-T Recommendation Q.724 (1988): "Signalling procedures". Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, August 1980. Postel, J., "Internet protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September 1981. Postel, J., "TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL", STD 7, RFC 793, September 1981. Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol", STD 51, RFC 1661, July 1994. Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R. and V. Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC 1889, January 1996. Schulzrinne, H., "RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control", RFC 1890, January 1996. Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998. Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998. Handley, M., Schulzrinne, H., Schooler, E. and J. Rosenberg, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543, March 1999. Greene, N., Ramalho, M. and B. Rosen, "Media Gateway control protocol architecture and requirements", RFC 2805, April 1999. 3. DEFINITIONS Access Gateway: A type of gateway that provides a User to Network Interface (UNI) such as ISDN. Descriptor: A syntactic element of the protocol that groups related properties. For instance, the properties of a media flow on the MG can be set by the MGC by including the appropriate descriptor in a command. Media Gateway (MG): The media gateway converts media provided in one type of network to the format required in another type of network. For example, a MG could terminate bearer channels from a switched circuit network (e.g., DS0s) and media streams from a packet network Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 9]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 (e.g., RTP streams in an IP network). This gateway may be capable of processing audio, video and T.120 alone or in any combination, and will be capable of full duplex media translations. The MG may also play audio/video messages and performs other IVR functions, or may perform media conferencing. Media Gateway Controller (MGC): Controls the parts of the call state that pertain to connection control for media channels in a MG. Multipoint Control Unit (MCU): An entity that controls the setup and coordination of a multi-user conference that typically includes processing of audio, video and data. Residential Gateway: A gateway that interworks an analogue line to a packet network. A residential gateway typically contains one or two analogue lines and is located at the customer premises. SCN FAS Signalling Gateway: This function contains the SCN Signalling Interface that terminates SS7, ISDN or other signalling links where the call control channel and bearer channels are collocated in the same physical span. SCN NFAS Signalling Gateway: This function contains the SCN Signalling Interface that terminates SS7 or other signalling links where the call control channels are separated from bearer channels. Stream: Bidirectional media or control flow received/sent by a media gateway as part of a call or conference. Trunk: A communication channel between two switching systems such as a DS0 on a T1 or E1 line. Trunking Gateway: A gateway between SCN network and packet network that typically terminates a large number of digital circuits. 4. ABBREVIATIONS This recommendation defines the following terms. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode BRI Basic Rate Interface CAS Channel Associated Signalling DTMF Dual Tone Multi-Frequency FAS Facility Associated Signalling GW GateWay IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IP Internet Protocol ISUP ISDN User Part Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 10]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 MG Media Gateway MGC Media Gateway Controller NFAS Non-Facility Associated Signalling PRI Primary Rate Interface PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network QoS Quality of Service RTP Real-time Transport Protocol SCN Switched Circuit Network SG Signalling Gateway SS7 Signalling System No. 7 5. CONVENTIONS In this recommendation, "shall" refers to a mandatory requirement, while "should" refers to a suggested but optional feature or procedure. The term "may" refers to an optional course of action without expressing a preference. 6. CONNECTION MODEL The connection model for the protocol describes the logical entities, or objects, within the Media Gateway that can be controlled by the Media Gateway Controller. The main abstractions used in the connection model are Terminations and Contexts. A Termination sources and/or sinks one or more streams. In a multimedia conference, a Termination can be multimedia and sources or sinks multiple media streams. The media stream parameters, as well as modem, and bearer parameters are encapsulated within the Termination. A Context is an association between a collection of Terminations. There is a special type of Context, the null Context, which contains all Terminations that are not associated to any other Termination. For instance, in a decomposed access gateway, all idle lines are represented by Terminations in the null Context. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 11]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 +------------------------------------------------------+ |Media Gateway | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context +-------------+ | | | | | Termination | | | | | |-------------| | | | | +-------------+ +->| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | Termination | +-----+ | | Channel | | | | | |-------------| | |---+ +-------------+ | | <-+--->| RTP Stream |---| * | | | | | | | | |---+ +-------------+ | | | | +-------------+ +-----+ | | Termination | | | | | | |-------------| | | | | +->| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | Channel | | | | | +-------------+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | | | | | +------------------------------+ | | |Context | | | +-------------+ | +-------------+ | | | | Termination | | +-----+ | Termination | | | | |-------------| | | | |-------------| | | <-+->| SCN Bearer | | | * |------| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | Channel | | | | | Channel | | | | +-------------+ | +-----+ +-------------+ | | | +------------------------------+ | | | | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context | | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | | | | Termination | +-----+ | Termination | | | | | |-------------| | | |-------------| | | <-+--->| SCN Bearer |---| * |------| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | Channel | | | | Channel | | | | | +-------------+ +-----+ +-------------+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | ___________________________________________________ | +------------------------------------------------------+ Figure 1: Example of H.248 Connection Model Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 12]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Figure 1 is a graphical depiction of these concepts. The diagram of Figure 1 gives several examples and is not meant to be an all- inclusive illustration. The asterisk box in each of the Contexts represents the logical association of Terminations implied by the Context. The example below shows an example of one way to accomplish a call- waiting scenario in a decomposed access gateway, illustrating the relocation of a Termination between Contexts. Terminations T1 and T2 belong to Context C1 in a two-way audio call. A second audio call is waiting for T1 from Termination T3. T3 is alone in Context C2. T1 accepts the call from T3, placing T2 on hold. This action results in T1 moving into Context C2, as shown below. +------------------------------------------------------+ |Media Gateway | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context C1 | | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | | | | Term. T2 | +-----+ | Term. T1 | | | | | |-------------| | | |-------------| | | <-+--->| RTP Stream |---| * |------| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | | | | | Channel | | | | | +-------------+ +-----+ +-------------+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context C2 | | | | +-------------+ | | | | +-----+ | Term. T3 | | | | | | | |-------------| | | | | | * |------| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | | | Channel | | | | | +-----+ +-------------+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | +------------------------------------------------------+ Figure 2: Example Call Waiting Scenario / Alerting Applied to T1 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 13]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 +------------------------------------------------------+ |Media Gateway | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context C1 | | | | +-------------+ | | | | | Term. T2 | +-----+ | | | | |-------------| | | | | <-+--->| RTP Stream |---| * | | | | | | | | | | | | | +-------------+ +-----+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | | |Context C2 | | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ | | | | | Term. T1 | +-----+ | Term. T3 | | | | | |-------------| | | |-------------| | | <-+--->| SCN Bearer |---| * |------| SCN Bearer |<---+-> | | | Channel | | | | Channel | | | | | +-------------+ +-----+ +-------------+ | | | +-------------------------------------------------+ | +------------------------------------------------------+ Figure 3. Example Call Waiting Scenario / Answer by T1 6.1 Contexts A Context is an association between a number of Terminations. The Context describes the topology (who hears/sees whom) and the media mixing and/or switching parameters if more than two Terminations are involved in the association. There is a special Context called the null Context. It contains Terminations that are not associated to any other Termination. Terminations in the null Context can have their parameters examined or modified, and may have events detected on them. In general, an Add command is used to add Terminations to Contexts. If the MGC does not specify an existing Context to which the Termination is to be added, the MG creates a new Context. A Termination may be removed from a Context with a Subtract command, and a Termination may be moved from one Context to another with a Move command. A Termination SHALL exist in only one Context at a time. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 14]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The maximum number of Terminations in a Context is a MG property. Media gateways that offer only point-to-point connectivity might allow at most two Terminations per Context. Media gateways that support multipoint conferences might allow three or more terminations per Context. 6.1.1 Context Attributes and Descriptors The attributes of Contexts are: . ContextID. . The topology (who hears/sees whom). The topology of a Context describes the flow of media between the Terminations within a Context. In contrast, the mode of a Termination (send/receive/_) describes the flow of the media at the ingress/egress of the media gateway. . The priority is used for a context in order to provide the MG with information about a certain precedence handling for a context. The MGC can also use the priority to control autonomously the traffic precedence in the MG in a smooth way in certain situations (e.g. restart), when a lot of contexts must be handled simultaneously. . An indicator for an emergency call is also provided to allow a preference handling in the MG. 6.1.2 Creating, Deleting and Modifying Contexts The protocol can be used to (implicitly) create Contexts and modify the parameter values of existing Contexts. The protocol has commands to add Terminations to Contexts, subtract them from Contexts, and to move Terminations between Contexts. Contexts are deleted implicitly when the last remaining Termination is subtracted or moved out. 6.2 Terminations A Termination is a logical entity on a MG that sources and/or sinks media and/or control streams. A Termination is described by a number of characterizing Properties, which are grouped in a set of Descriptors that are included in commands. Terminations have unique identities (TerminationIDs), assigned by the MG at the time of their creation. Terminations representing physical entities have a semi-permanent existence. For example, a Termination representing a TDM channel might exist for as long as it is provisioned in the gateway. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 15]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Terminations representing ephemeral information flows, such as RTP flows, would usually exist only for the duration of their use. Ephemeral Terminations are created by means of an Add command. They are destroyed by means of a Subtract command. In contrast, when a physical Termination is Added to or Subtracted from a Context, it is taken from or to the null Context, respectively. Terminations may have signals applied to them. Signals are MG generated media streams such as tones and announcements as well as line signals such as hookswitch. Terminations may be programmed to detect Events, the occurrence of which can trigger notification messages to the MGC, or action by the MG. Statistics may be accumulated on a Termination. Statistics are reported to the MGC upon request (by means of the AuditValue command, see section 7.2.5) and when the Termination is taken out of the call it is in. Multimedia gateways may process multiplexed media streams. For example, Recommendation H.221 describes a frame structure for multiple media streams multiplexed on a number of digital 64 kbit/s channels. Such a case is handled in the connection model in the following way. For every bearer channel that carries part of the multiplexed streams, there is a Termination. The Terminations that source/sink the digital channels are connected to a separate Termination called the multiplexing Termination. This Termination describes the multiplex used (e.g. how the H.221 frames are carried over the digital channels used). The MuxDescriptor is used to this end. If multiple media are carried, this Termination contains multiple StreamDescriptors. The media streams can be associated with streams sourced/sunk by other Terminations in the Context. Terminations may be created which represent multiplexed bearers, such as an ATM AAL2. When a new multiplexed bearer is to be created, an ephemeral termination is created in a context established for this purpose. When the termination is subtracted, the multiplexed bearer is destroyed. 6.2.1 Termination Dynamics The protocol can be used to create new Terminations and to modify property values of existing Terminations. These modifications include the possibility of adding or removing events and/or signals. The Termination properties, and events and signals are described in the ensuing sections. An MGC can only release/modify terminations and the resources that the termination represents which it has previously seized via, e.g., the Add command. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 16]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 6.2.2 TerminationIDs Terminations are referenced by a TerminationID, which is an arbitrary schema chosen by the MG. TerminationIDs of physical Terminations are provisioned in the Media Gateway. The TerminationIDs may be chosen to have structure. For instance, a TerminationID may consist of trunk group and a trunk within the group. A wildcarding mechanism using two types of wildcards can be used with TerminationIDs. The two wildcards are ALL and CHOOSE. The former is used to address multiple Terminations at once, while the latter is used to indicate to a media gateway that it must select a Termination satisfying the partially specified TerminationID. This allows, for instance, that a MGC instructs a MG to choose a circuit within a trunk group. When ALL is used in the TerminationID of a command, the effect is identical to repeating the command with each of the matching TerminationIDs. Since each of these commands may generate a response, the size of the entire response may be large. If individual responses are not required, a wildcard response may be requested. In such a case, a single response is generated, which contains the UNION of all of the individual responses which otherwise would have been generated, with duplicate values suppressed. Wildcard response may be particularly useful in the Audit commands. The encoding of the wildcarding mechanism is detailed in Annexes A and B. 6.2.3 Packages Different types of gateways may implement Terminations that have widely differing characteristics. Variations in Terminations are accommodated in the protocol by allowing Terminations to have optional Properties, Events, Signals and Statistics implemented by MGs. In order to achieve MG/MGC interoperability, such options are grouped into Packages, and a Termination realizes a set of such Packages. More information on definition of packages can be found in section 12. An MGC can audit a Termination to determine which Packages it realizes. Properties, Events, Signals and Statistics defined in Packages, as well as parameters to them, are referenced by identifiers (Ids). Identifiers are scoped. For each package, PropertyIds, EventIds, Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 17]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 SignalIds, StatisticsIds and ParameterIds have unique name spaces and the same identifier may be used in each of them. Two PropertyIds in different packages may also have the same identifier, etc. 6.2.4 Termination Properties and Descriptors Terminations have properties. The properties have unique PropertyIDs. Most properties have default values. When a Termination is created, properties get their default values, unless the controller specifically sets a different value. The default value of a property of a physical Termination can be changed by setting it to a different value when the Termination is in the null Context. Every time such a Termination returns to the null Context, the values of its properties are reset to this default value. There are a number of common properties for Terminations and properties specific to media streams. The common properties are also called the termination state properties. For each media stream, there are local properties and properties of the received and transmitted flows. Properties not included in the base protocol are defined in Packages. These properties are referred to by a name consisting of the PackageName and a PropertyId. Most properties have default values described in the Package description. Properties may be read- only or read/write. The possible values of a property may be audited, as can their current values. For properties that are read/write, the MGC can set their values. A property may be declared as "Global" which has a single value shared by all terminations realizing the package. Related properties are grouped into descriptors for convenience. When a Termination is Added to a Context, the value of its read/write properties can be set by including the appropriate descriptors as parameters to the Add command. Properties not mentioned in the command retain their prior values. Similarly, a property of a Termination in a Context may have its value changed by the Modify command. Properties not mentioned in the Modify command retain their prior values. Properties may also have their values changed when a Termination is moved from one Context to another as a result of a Move command. In some cases, descriptors are returned as output from a command. The following table lists all of the possible Descriptors and their use. Not all descriptors are legal as input or output parameters to every command. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 18]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Descriptor Name Description Modem Identifies modem type and properties when applicable. Mux Describes multiplex type for multimedia terminations (e.g. H.221, H.223, H.225.0) and Terminations forming the input mux. Media A list of media stream specifications (see 7.1.4). TerminationState Properties of a Termination (which can be defined in Packages) that are not stream specific. Stream A list of remote/local/localControl descriptors for a single stream. Local Contains properties that specify the media flows that the MG receives from the remote entity. Remote Contains properties that specify the media flows that the MG sends to the remote entity. LocalControl Contains properties (which can be defined in packages) that are of interest between the MG and the MGC. Events Describes events to be detected by the MG and what to do when an event is detected. EventBuffer Describes events to be detected by the MG when Event Buffering is active. Signals Describes signals and/or actions to be applied (e.g. Busy Tone) to the Terminations. Audit In Audit commands, identifies which information is desired. Packages In AuditValue, returns a list of Packages realized by Termination. DigitMap Instructions for handling DTMF tones at the MG. ServiceChange In ServiceChange, what, why service change occurred, etc. ObservedEvents In Notify or AuditValue, report of events observed. Statistics In Subtract and Audit, Report of Statistics kept on a Termination. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 19]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 6.2.5 Root Termination Occasionally, a command must refer to the entire gateway, rather than a termination within it. A special TerminationID, "Root" is reserved for this purpose. Packages may be defined on Root. Root thus may have properties and events (signals are not appropriate for root). Accordingly, the root TerminationID may appear in: . a Modify command - to change a property or set an event . a Notify command - to report an event . an AuditValue return - to examine the values of properties implemented on root . an AuditCapability - to determine what properties of root are implemented . a ServiceChange - to declare the gateway in or out of service. Any other use of the root TerminationID is an error. 7. COMMANDS The protocol provides commands for manipulating the logical entities of the protocol connection model, Contexts and Terminations. Commands provide control at the finest level of granularity supported by the protocol. For example, Commands exist to add Terminations to a Context, modify Terminations, subtract Terminations from a Context, and audit properties of Contexts or Terminations. Commands provide for complete control of the properties of Contexts and Terminations. This includes specifying which events a Termination is to report, which signals/actions are to be applied to a Termination and specifying the topology of a Context (who hears/sees whom). Most commands are for the specific use of the Media Gateway Controller as command initiator in controlling Media Gateways as command responders. The exceptions are the Notify and ServiceChange commands: Notify is sent from Media Gateway to Media Gateway Controller, and ServiceChange may be sent by either entity. Below is an overview of the commands; they are explained in more detail in section 7.2. 1. Add. The Add command adds a termination to a context. The Add command on the first Termination in a Context is used to create a Context. 2. Modify. The Modify command modifies the properties, events and signals of a termination. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 20]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 3. Subtract. The Subtract command disconnects a Termination from its Context and returns statistics on the Termination's participation in the Context. The Subtract command on the last Termination in a Context deletes the Context. 4. Move. The Move command atomically moves a Termination to another context. 5. AuditValue. The AuditValue command returns the current state of properties, events, signals and statistics of Terminations. 6. AuditCapabilities. The AuditCapabilities command returns all the possible values for Termination properties, events and signals allowed by the Media Gateway. 7. Notify. The Notify command allows the Media Gateway to inform the Media Gateway Controller of the occurrence of events in the Media Gateway. 8. ServiceChange. The ServiceChange Command allows the Media Gateway to notify the Media Gateway Controller that a Termination or group of Terminations is about to be taken out of service or has just been returned to service. ServiceChange is also used by the MG to announce its availability to an MGC (registration), and to notify the MGC of impending or completed restart of the MG. The MGC may announce a handover to the MG by sending it a ServiceChange command. The MGC may also use ServiceChange to instruct the MG to take a Termination or group of Terminations in or out of service. These commands are detailed in sections 7.2.1 through 7.2.8 7.1 Descriptors The parameters to a command are termed Descriptors. A Descriptor consists of a name and a list of items. Some items may have values. Many Commands share common Descriptors. This subsection enumerates these Descriptors. Descriptors may be returned as output from a command. Parameters and parameter usage specific to a given Command type are described in the subsection that describes the Command. 7.1.1 Specifying Parameters Command parameters are structured into a number of descriptors. In general, the text format of descriptors is DescriptorName=<someID>{parm=value, parm=value_.}. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 21]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Parameters may be fully specified, over-specified or under-specified: 1. Fully specified parameters have a single, unambiguous value that the command initiator is instructing the command responder to use for the specified parameter. 2. Under-specified parameters, using the CHOOSE value, allow the command responder to choose any value it can support. 3. Over-specified parameters have a list of potential values. The list order specifies the command initiator's order of preference of selection. The command responder chooses one value from the offered list and returns that value to the command initiator. Unspecified mandatory parameters (i.e. mandatory parameters not specified in a descriptor) result in the command responder retaining the previous value for that parameter. Unspecified optional parameters result in the command responder using the default value of the parameter. Whenever a parameter is underspecified or overspecified, the descriptor containing the value chosen by the responder is included as output from the command. Each command specifies the TerminationId the command operates on. This TerminationId may be "wildcarded". When the TerminationId of a command is wildcarded, the effect shall be as if the command was repeated with each of the TerminationIds matched. 7.1.2 Modem Descriptor The Modem descriptor specifies the modem type and parameters, if any, required for use in e.g. H.324 and text conversation. The descriptor includes the following modem types: V.18, V.22, V.22bis, V.32, V.32bis, V.34, V.90, V.91, Synchronous ISDN, and allows for extensions. By default, no modem descriptor is present in a Termination. 7.1.3 Multiplex Descriptor In multimedia calls, a number of media streams are carried on a (possibly different) number of bearers. The multiplex descriptor associates the media and the bearers. The descriptor includes the multiplex type: . H.221 . H.223, . H.226, . V.76, . Possible Extensions Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 22]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 and a set of TerminationIDs representing the multiplexed inputs, in order. For example: Mux = H.221{ MyT3/1/2, MyT3/2/13, MyT3/3/6, MyT3/21/22} 7.1.4 Media Descriptor The Media Descriptor specifies the parameters for all the media streams. These parameters are structured into two descriptors, a Termination State Descriptor, which specifies the properties of a termination that are not stream dependent, and one or more Stream Descriptors each of which describes a single media stream. A stream is identified by a StreamID. The StreamID is used to link the streams in a Context that belong together. Multiple streams exiting a termination shall be synchronized with each other. Within the Stream Descriptor, there are up to three subsidiary descriptors, LocalControl, Local, and Remote. The relationship between these descriptors is thus: Media Descriptor TerminationStateDescriptor Stream Descriptor LocalControl Descriptor Local Descriptor Remote Descriptor As a convenience a LocalControl, Local, or Remote descriptor may be included in the Media Descriptor without an enclosing Stream descriptor. In this case, the StreamID is assumed to be 1. 7.1.5 Termination State Descriptor The Termination State Descriptor contains the ServiceStates property, the EventBufferControl property and properties of a termination (defined in Packages) that are not stream specific. The ServiceStates property describes the overall state of the termination (not stream-specific). A Termination can be in one of the following states: "test", "out of service", or "in service". The "test" state indicates that the termination is being tested. The state "out of service" indicates that the termination cannot be used for traffic. The state "in service" indicates that a termination can be used or is being used for normal traffic. "in service" is the default state. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 23]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Values assigned to Properties may be simple values (integer/string/enumeration) or may be underspecified, where more than one value is supplied and the MG may make a choice: . Alternative Values: multiple values in a list, one of which must be selected . Ranges: minimum and maximum values, any value between min and max must be selected, boundary values included . Greater Than/Less Than: value must be greater/less than specified value . CHOOSE Wildcard: the MG chooses from the allowed values for the property The EventBufferControl property specifies whether events are buffered following detection of an event in the Events Descriptor, or processed immediately. See section 7.1.9 for details. 7.1.6 Stream Descriptor A Stream descriptor specifies the parameters of a single bi- directional stream. These parameters are structured into three descriptors: one that contains termination properties specific to a stream and one each for local and remote flows. The Stream Descriptor includes a StreamID which identifies the stream. Streams are created by specifying a new StreamID on one of the terminations in a Context. A stream is deleted by setting empty Local and Remote descriptors for the stream with ReserveGroup and ReserveValue in LocalControl set to "false" on all terminations in the context that previously supported that stream. StreamIDs are of local significance between MGC and MG and they are assigned by the MGC. Within a context, StreamID is a means by which to indicate which media flows are interconnected: streams with the same StreamID are connected. If a termination is moved from one context to another, the effect on the context to which the termination is moved is the same as in the case that a new termination were added with the same StreamIDs as the moved termination. 7.1.7 LocalControl Descriptor The LocalControl Descriptor contains the Mode property, the ReserveGroup and ReserveValue properties and properties of a termination (defined in Packages) that are stream specific, and are of interest between the MG and the MGC. Values of properties may be underspecified as in section 7.1.1. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 24]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The allowed values for the mode property are send-only, receive-only, send/receive, inactive and loop-back. "Send" and "receive" are with respect to the exterior of the context, so that, for example, a stream set to mode=sendonly does not pass received media into the context. Signals and Events are not affected by mode. The boolean-valued Reserve properties, ReserveValue and ReserveGroup, of a Termination indicate what the MG is expected to do when it receives a local and/or remote descriptor. If the value of a Reserve property is True, the MG SHALL reserve resources for all alternatives specified in the local and/or remote descriptors for which it currently has resources available. It SHALL respond with the alternatives for which it reserves resources. If it cannot not support any of the alternatives, it SHALL respond with a reply to the MGC that contains empty local and/or remote descriptors. If the value of a Reserve property is False, the MG SHALL choose one of the alternatives specified in the local descriptor (if present) and one of the alternatives specified in the remote descriptor (if present). If the MG has not yet reserved resources to support the selected alternative, it SHALL reserve the resources. If, on the other hand, it already reserved resources for the Termination addressed (because of a prior exchange with ReserveValue and/or ReserveGroup equal to True), it SHALL release any excess resources it reserved previously. Finally, the MG shall send a reply to the MGC containing the alternatives for the local and/or remote descriptor that it selected. If the MG does not have sufficient resources to support any of the alternatives specified, is SHALL respond with error 510 (insufficient resources). The default value of ReserveValue and ReserveGroup is False. A new setting of the LocalControl Descriptor completely replaces the previous setting of that descriptor in the MG. Thus to retain information from the previous setting the MGC must include that information in the new setting. If the MGC wishes to delete some information from the existing descriptor, it merely resends the descriptor (in a Modify command) with the unwanted information stripped out. 7.1.8 Local and Remote Descriptors The MGC uses Local and Remote descriptors to reserve and commit MG resources for media decoding and encoding for the given Stream(s) and Termination to which they apply. The MG includes these descriptors in its response to indicate what it is actually prepared to support. The MG SHALL include additional properties and their values in its Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 25]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 response if these properties are mandatory yet not present in the requests made by the MGC (e.g., by specifying detailed video encoding parameters where the MGC only specified the payload type). Local refers to the media received by the MG and Remote refers to the media sent by the MG. When text encoding the protocol, the descriptors consist of session descriptions as defined in SDP (RFC2327). In session descriptions sent from the MGC to the MG, the following exceptions to the syntax of RFC 2327 are allowed: . the "s=", "t=" and "o=" lines are optional, . the use of CHOOSE is allowed in place of a single parameter value, and . the use of alternatives is allowed in place of a single parameter value. When multiple session descriptions are provided in one descriptor, the "v=" lines are required as delimiters; otherwise they are optional in session descriptions sent to the MG. Implementations shall accept session descriptions that are fully conformant to RFC2327. When binary encoding the protocol the descriptor consists of groups of properties (tag-value pairs) as specified in Annex C. Each such group may contain the parameters of a session description. Below, the semantics of the local and remote descriptors are specified in detail. The specification consists of two parts. The first part specifies the interpretation of the contents of the descriptor. The second part specifies the actions the MG must take upon receiving the local and remote descriptors. The actions to be taken by the MG depend on the values of the ReserveValue and ReserveGroup properties of the LocalControl descriptor. Either the local or the remote descriptor or both may be . unspecified (i.e., absent), . empty, . underspecified through use of CHOOSE in a property value, . fully specified, or . overspecified through presentation of multiple groups of properties and possibly multiple property values in one or more of these groups. Where the descriptors have been passed from the MGC to the MG, they are interpreted according to the rules given in section 7.1.1, with the following additional comments for clarification: Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 26]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 (a) An unspecified Local or Remote descriptor is considered to be a missing mandatory parameter. It requires the MG to use whatever was last specified for that descriptor. It is possible that there was no previously-specified value, in which case the descriptor concerned is ignored in further processing of the command. (b) An empty Local (Remote) descriptor in a message from the MGC signifies a request to release any resources reserved for the media flow received (sent). (c) If multiple groups of properties are present in a Local or Remote descriptor or multiple values within a group, the order of preference is descending. (d) Underspecified or overspecified properties within a group of properties sent by the MGC are requests for the MG to choose one or more values which it can support for each of those properties. In case of an overspecified property, the list of values is in descending order of preference. Subject to the above rules, subsequent action depends on the values of the ReserveValue and ReserveGroup properties in LocalControl. If ReserveGroup is true, the MG reserves the resources required to support any of the requested property group alternatives that it can currently support. If ReserveValue is true, the MG reserves the resources required to support any of the requested property value alternatives that it can currently support. NOTE - If a Local or Remote descriptor contains multiple groups of properties, and ReserveGroup is true, then the MG is requested to reserve resources so that it can decode or encode the media stream according to any of the alternatives. For instance, if the Local descriptor contains two groups of properties, one specifying packetized G.711 A-law audio and the other G.723.1 audio, the MG reserves resources so that it can decode one audio stream encoded in either G.711 A-law format or G.723.1 format. The MG does not have to reserve resources to decode two audio streams simultaneously, one encoded in G.711 A-law and one in G.723.1. The intention for the use of ReserveValue is analogous. If ReserveGroup is true or ReserveValue is true, then the following rules apply. . If the MG has insufficient resources to support all alternatives requested by the MGC and the MGC requested resources in both Local and Remote, the MG should reserve resources to support at least one alternative each within Local and Remote. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 27]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 . If the MG has insufficient resources to support at least one alternative within a Local (Remote) descriptor received from the MGC, it shall return an empty Local (Remote) in response. . In its response to the MGC, when the MGC included Local and Remote descriptors, the MG SHALL include Local and Remote descriptors for all groups of properties and property values it reserved resources for. If the MG is incapable of supporting at least one of the alternatives within the Local (Remote) descriptor received from the MGC, it SHALL return an empty Local (Remote) descriptor. . If the Mode property of the LocalControl descriptor is RecvOnly or SendRecv, the MG must be prepared to receive media encoded according to any of the alternatives included in its response to the MGC. . If ReserveGroup is False and ReserveValue is false, then the MG SHOULD apply the following rules to resolve Local and Remote to a single alternative each: . The MG chooses the first alternative in Local for which it is able to support at least one alternative in Remote. . If the MG is unable to support at least one Local and one Remote alternative, it returns Error 510 (Insufficient Resources). . The MG returns its selected alternative in each of Local and Remote. A new setting of a Local or Remote Descriptor completely replaces the previous setting of that descriptor in the MG. Thus to retain information from the previous setting the MGC must include that information in the new setting. If the MGC wishes to delete some information from the existing descriptor, it merely resends the descriptor (in a Modify command) with the unwanted information stripped out. 7.1.9 Events Descriptor The EventsDescriptor parameter contains a RequestIdentifier and a list of events that the Media Gateway is requested to detect and report. The RequestIdentifier is used to correlate the request with the notifications that it may trigger. Requested events include, for example, fax tones, continuity test results, and on-hook and off-hook transitions. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 28]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Each event in the descriptor contains the Event name, an optional streamID, an optional KeepActive flag, and optional parameters. The Event name consists of a Package Name (where the event is defined) and an EventID. The ALL wildcard may be used for the EventID, indicating that all events from the specified package have to be detected. The default streamID is 0, indicating that the event to be detected is not related to a particular media stream. Events can have parameters. This allows a single event description to have some variation in meaning without creating large numbers of individual events. Further event parameters are defined in the package. The default action of the MG, when it detects an event in the Events Descriptor, is to send a Notify command to the MG. Any other action is for further study. If the value of the EventBufferControl property equals LockStep, following detection of such an event, normal handling of events is suspended. Any event which is subsequently detected and occurs in the EventBuffer Descriptor is added to the end of the EventBuffer (a FIFO queue), along with the time that it was detected. The MG SHALL wait for a new EventsDescriptor to be loaded. A new EventsDescriptor can be loaded either as the result of receiving a command with a new EventsDescriptor, or by activating an embedded EventsDescriptor. If EventBufferControl equals Off, the MG continues processing based on the active EventsDescriptor. In the case that an embedded EventsDescriptor being activated, the MG continues event processing based on the newly activated EventsDescriptor (Note - for purposes of EventBuffer handling, activation of an embedded EventsDescriptor is equivalent to receipt of a new EventsDescriptor). When the MG receives a command with a new EventsDescriptor, one or more events may have been buffered in the EventBuffer in the MG. The value of EventBufferControl then determines how the MG treats such buffered events. Case 1 If EventBufferControl = LockStep and the MG receives a new EventsDescriptor it will check the FIFO EventBuffer and take the following actions: 1. If the EventBuffer is empty, the MG waits for detection of events based on the new EventsDescriptor. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 29]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 2. If the EventBuffer is non-empty, the MG processes the FIFO queue starting with the first event: a) If the event in the queue is in the events listed in the new EventsDescriptor, the default action of the MG is to send a Notify command to the MGC and remove the event from the EventBuffer. Any other action is for further study. The time stamp of the Notify shall be the time the event was actually detected. The MG then waits for a new EventsDescriptor. While waiting for a new EventsDescriptor, any events matching the EventsBufferDescriptor will be placed in the EventBuffer and the event processing will repeat from step 1. b) If the event is not in the new EventsDescriptor, the MG SHALL discard the event and repeat from step 1. Case 2 If EventBufferControl equals Off and the MG receives a new EventsDescriptor, it processes new events with the new EventsDescriptor. If the MG receives a command instructing it to set the value of EventBufferControl to Off, all events in the EventBuffer SHALL be discarded. The MG may report several events in a single Transaction as long as this does not unnecessarily delay the reporting of individual events. For procedures regarding transmitting the Notify command, refer to the appropriate annex for specific transport considerations. The default value of EventBufferControl is Off. Note - Since the EventBufferControl property is in the TerminationStateDescriptor, the MG might receive a command that changes the EventBufferControl property and does not include an EventsDescriptor. Normally, detection of an event shall cause any active signals to stop. When KeepActive is specified in the event, the MG shall not interrupt any signals active on the Termination on which the event is detected. An event can include an Embedded Signals descriptor and/or an Embedded Events Descriptor which, if present, replaces the current Signals/Events descriptor when the event is detected. It is possible, for example, to specify that the dial-tone Signal be Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 30]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 generated when an off-hook Event is detected, or that the dial-tone Signal be stopped when a digit is detected. A media gateway controller shall not send EventsDescriptors with an event both marked KeepActive and containing an embedded SignalsDescriptor. Only one level of embedding is permitted. An embedded EventsDescriptor SHALL NOT contain another embedded EventsDescriptor; an embedded EventsDescriptor may contain an embedded SignalsDescriptor. An EventsDescriptor received by a media gateway replaces any previous Events Descriptor. Event notification in process shall complete, and events detected after the command containing the new EventsDescriptor executes, shall be processed according to the new EventsDescriptor. 7.1.10 EventBuffer Descriptor The EventBuffer Descriptor contains a list of events, with their parameters if any, that the MG is requested to detect and buffer when EventBufferControl equals LockStep (see 7.1.9). 7.1.11 Signals Descriptor A SignalsDescriptor is a parameter that contains the set of signals that the Media Gateway is asked to apply to a Termination. A SignalsDescriptor contains a number of signals and/or sequential signal lists. A SignalsDescriptor may contain zero signals and sequential signal lists. Support of sequential signal lists is optional. Signals are defined in packages. Signals shall be named with a Package name (in which the signal is defined) and a SignalID. No wildcard shall be used in the SignalID. Signals that occur in a SignalsDescriptor have an optional StreamID parameter (default is 0, to indicate that the signal is not related to a particular media stream), an optional signal type (see below), an optional duration and possibly parameters defined in the package that defines the signal. This allows a single signal to have some variation in meaning, obviating the need to create large numbers of individual signals. Finally, the optional parameter "notifyCompletion" allows a MGC to indicate that it wishes to be notified when the signal finishes playout. When the MGC enables the signal completion event (see section E.1.2) in an Events Descriptor, that event is detected whenever a signal terminates and "notifyCompletion" for that signal is set to TRUE. The signal completion event of section E.1.2 has a parameter that indicates how the signal terminated: it played to Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 31]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 completion, it was interrupted by an event, it was halted because a new SignalsDescriptor arrived, or the signal did not complete for some other reason. The duration is an integer value that is expressed in hundredths of a second. There are three types of signals: . on/off - the signal lasts until it is turned off, . timeout - the signal lasts until it is turned off or a specific period of time elapses, . brief - the signal duration is so short that it will stop on its own unless a new signal is applied that causes it to stop; no timeout value is needed. If the signal type is specified in a SignalsDescriptor, it overrides the default signal type (see Section 12.1.4). If duration is specified for an on/off signal, it SHALL be ignored. A sequential signal list consists of a signal list identifier, a sequence of signals to be played sequentially, and a signal type. Only the trailing element of the sequence of signals in a sequential signal list may be an on/off signal. If the trailing element of the sequence is an on/off signal, the signal type of the sequential signal list shall be on/off as well. If the sequence of signals in a sequential signal list contains signals of type timeout and the trailing element is not of type on/off, the type of the sequential signal list SHALL be set to timeout. The duration of a sequential signal list with type timeout is the sum of the durations of the signals it contains. If the sequence of signals in a sequential signal list contains only signals of type brief, the type of the sequential signal list SHALL be set to brief. A signal list is treated as a single signal of the specified type when played out. Multiple signals and sequential signal lists in the same SignalsDescriptor shall be played simultaneously. Signals are defined as proceeding from the termination towards the exterior of the Context unless otherwise specified in a package. When the same Signal is applied to multiple Terminations within one Transaction, the MG should consider using the same resource to generate these Signals. Production of a Signal on a Termination is stopped by application of a new SignalsDescriptor, or detection of an Event on the Termination (see section 7.1.9). Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 32]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 A new SignalsDescriptor replaces any existing SignalsDescriptor. Any signals applied to the Termination not in the replacement descriptor shall be stopped, and new signals are applied, except as follows. Signals present in the replacement descriptor and containing the KeepActive flagshall be continued if they are currently playing and have not already completed. If a replacement signal descriptor contains a signal that is not currently playing and contains the KeepActive flag, that signal SHALL be ignored. If the replacement descriptor contains a sequential signal list with the same identifier as the existing descriptor, then . the signal type and sequence of signals in the sequential signal list in the replacement descriptor shall be ignored, and . the playing of the signals in the sequential signal list in the existing descriptor shall not be interrupted. 7.1.12 Audit Descriptor The Audit Descriptor specifies what information is to be audited. The Audit Descriptor specifies the list of descriptors to be returned. Audit may be used in any command to force the return of a descriptor even if the descriptor in the command was not present, or had no underspecified parameters. Possible items in the Audit Descriptor are: Modem Mux Events Media Signals ObservedEvents DigitMap Statistics Packages EventBuffer Audit may be empty, in which case, no descriptors are returned. This is useful in Subtract, to inhibit return of statistics, especially when using wildcard. 7.1.13 ServiceChange Descriptor The ServiceChangeDescriptor contains the following parameters: . ServiceChangeMethod . ServiceChangeReason . ServiceChangeAddress Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 33]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 . ServiceChangeDelay . ServiceChangeProfile . ServiceChangeVersion . ServiceChangeMGCId . TimeStamp See section 7.2.8. 7.1.14 DigitMap Descriptor A DigitMap is a dialing plan resident in the Media Gateway used for detecting and reporting digit events received on a Termination. The DigitMap Descriptor contains a DigitMap name and the DigitMap to be assigned. A digit map may be preloaded into the MG by management action and referenced by name in an EventsDescriptor, may be defined dynamically and subsequently referenced by name, or the actual digitmap itself may be specified in the EventsDescriptor. It is permissible for a digit map completion event within an Events Descriptor to refer by name to a DigitMap which is defined by a DigitMap Descriptor within the same command, regardless of the transmitted order of the respective descriptors. DigitMaps defined in a DigitMapDescriptor can occur in any of the standard Termination manipulation Commands of the protocol. A DigitMap, once defined, can be used on all Terminations specified by the (possibly wildcarded) TerminationID in such a command. DigitMaps defined on the root Termination are global and can be used on every Termination in the MG, provided that a DigitMap with the same name has not been defined on the given Termination. When a DigitMap is defined dynamically in a DigitMap Descriptor: . A new DigitMap is created by specifying a name that is not yet defined. The value shall be present. . A DigitMap value is updated by supplying a new value for a name that is already defined. Terminations presently using the digitmap shall continue to use the old definition; subsequent EventsDescriptors specifying the name, including any EventsDescriptor in the command containing the DigitMap descriptor, shall use the new one. . A DigitMap is deleted by supplying an empty value for a name that is already defined. Terminations presently using the digitmap shall continue to use the old definition. The collection of digits according to a DigitMap may be protected by three timers, viz. a start timer (T), short timer (S), and long timer (L). Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 34]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 1. The start timer (T) is used prior to any digits having been dialed. 2. If the Media Gateway can determine that at least one more digit is needed for a digit string to match any of the allowed patterns in the digit map, then the interdigit timer value should be set to a long (L) duration (e.g. 16 seconds). 3. If the digit string has matched one of the patterns in a digit map, but it is possible that more digits could be received which would cause a match with a different pattern, then instead of reporting the match immediately, the MG must apply the short timer (S) and wait for more digits. The timers are configurable parameters to a DigitMap. The Start timer is started at the beginning of every digit map use, but can be overridden. The formal syntax of the digit map is described by the DigitMap rule in the formal syntax description of the protocol (see Annex A and Annex B). A DigitMap, according to this syntax, is defined either by a string or by a list of strings. Each string in the list is an alternative event sequence, specified either as a sequence of digit map symbols or as a regular expression of digit map symbols. These digit map symbols, the digits "0" through "9" and letters "A" through a maximum value depending on the signalling system concerned, but never exceeding "K", correspond to specified events within a package which has been designated in the Events Descriptor on the termination to which the digit map is being applied. (The mapping between events and digit map symbols is defined in the documentation for packages associated with channel-associated signalling systems such as DTMF, MF, or R2. Digits "0" through "9" MUST be mapped to the corresponding digit events within the signalling system concerned. Letters should be allocated in logical fashion, facilitating the use of range notation for alternative events.) The letter "x" is used as a wildcard, designating any event corresponding to symbols in the range "0"-"9". The string may also contain explicit ranges and, more generally, explicit sets of symbols, designating alternative events any one of which satisfies that position of the digit map. Finally, the dot symbol "." stands for zero or more repetitions of the event selector (event, range of events, set of alternative events, or wildcard) that precedes it. As a consequence of the third timing rule above, inter-event timing while matching the dot symbol uses the short timer by default. In addition to these event symbols, the string may contain "S" and "L" inter-event timing specifiers and the "Z" duration modifier. "S" Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 35]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 and "L" respectively indicate that the MG should use the short (S) timer or the long (L) timer for subsequent events, over-riding the timing rules described above. A timer specifier following a dot specifies inter-event timing for all events matching the dot as well as for subsequent events. If an explicit timing specifier is in effect in one alternative event sequence, but none is given in any other candidate alternative, the timer value set by the explicit timing specifier must be used. If all sequences with explicit timing controls are dropped from the candidate set, timing reverts to the default rules given above. Finally, if conflicting timing specifiers are in effect in different alternative sequences, the results are undefined. A "Z" designates a long duration event: placed in front of the symbol(s) designating the event(s) which satisfy a given digit position, it indicates that that position is satisfied only if the duration of the event exceeds the long-duration threshold. The value of this threshold is assumed to be provisioned in the MG. A digit map is active while the events descriptor which invoked it is active and it has not completed. A digit map completes when: . a timer has expired, or . an alternative event sequence has been matched and no other alternative event sequence in the digit map could be matched through detection of an additional event (unambiguous match), or . an event has been detected such that a match to a complete alternative event sequence of the digit map will be impossible no matter what additional events are received. Upon completion, a digit map completion event as defined in the package providing the events being mapped into the digit map shall be generated. At that point the digit map is deactivated. Subsequent events in the package are processed as per the currently active event processing mechanisms. Pending completion, successive events shall be processed according to the following rules: 1. The "current dial string", an internal variable, is initially empty. The set of candidate alternative event sequences includes all of the alternatives specified in the digit map. 2. At each step, a timer is set to wait for the next event, based either on the default timing rules given above or on explicit timing specified in one or more alternative event sequences. If Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 36]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 the timer expires and a member of the candidate set of alternatives is fully satisfied, a timeout completion with full match is reported. If the timer expires and part or none of any candidate alternative is satisfied, a timeout completion with partial match is reported. 3. If an event is detected before the timer expires, it is mapped to a digit string symbol and provisionally added to the end of the current dial string. The duration of the event (long or not long) is noted if and only if this is relevant in the current symbol position (because at least one of the candidate alternative event sequences includes the "Z" modifier at this position in the sequence). 4. The current dial string is compared to the candidate alternative event sequences. If and only if a sequence expecting a long- duration event at this position is matched (i.e. the event had long duration and met the specification for this position), then any alternative event sequences not specifying a long duration event at this position are discarded, and the current dial string is modified by inserting a "Z" in front of the symbol representing the latest event. Any sequence expecting a long-duration event at this position but not matching the observed event is discarded from the candidate set. If alternative event sequences not specifying a long duration event in the given position remain in the candidate set after application of the above rules, the observed event duration is treated as irrelevant in assessing matches to them. 5. If exactly one candidate remains, a completion event is generated indicating an unambiguous match. If no candidates remain, the latest event is removed from the current dial string and a completion event is generated indicating full match if one of the candidates from the previous step was fully satisfied before the latest event was detected, or partial match otherwise. The event removed from the current dial string will then be reported as per the currently active event processing mechanisms. 6. If no completion event is reported out of step 5 (because the candidate set still contains more than one alternative event sequence), processing returns to step 2. A digit map is activated whenever a new event descriptor is applied to the termination or embedded event descriptor is activated, and that event descriptor contains a digit map completion event which itself contains a digit map parameter. Each new activation of a digit map begins at step 1 of the above procedure, with a clear current dial string. Any previous contents of the current dial Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 37]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 string from an earlier activation are lost. While the digit map is activated, detection is enabled for all events defined in the package containing the specified digit map completion event. Normal event behaviour (e.g. stopping of signals unless the digit completion event has the KeepActive flag enabled) continues to apply for each such event detected, except that the events in the package containing the specified digit map completion event other than the completion event itself are not individually notified. Note that if a package contains a digit map completion event, then an event specification consisting of the package name with a wildcarded ItemID (Property Name) will activate a digit map if the event includes a digit map parameter. Regardless of whether a digit map is activated, this form of event specification will cause the individual events to be reported to the MGC as they are detected. As an example, consider the following dial plan: 0 Local operator 00 Long distance operator xxxx Local extension number (starts with 1-7) 8xxxxxxx Local number #xxxxxxx Off-site extension *xx Star services 91xxxxxxxxxx Long distance number 9011 + up to 15 digits International number If the DTMF detection package described in Annex E (section E.6) is used to collect the dialled digits, then the dialling plan shown above results in the following digit map: (0| 00|[1-7]xxx|8xxxxxxx|Fxxxxxxx|Exx|91xxxxxxxxxx|9011x.) 7.1.15 Statistics Descriptor The Statistics parameter provides information describing the status and usage of a Termination during its existence within a specific Context. There is a set of standard statistics kept for each termination where appropriate (number of octets sent and received for example). The particular statistical properties that are reported for a given Termination are determined by the Packages realized by the Termination. By default, statistics are reported when the Termination is Subtracted from the Context. This behavior can be overridden by including an empty AuditDescriptor in the Subtract command. Statistics may also be returned from the AuditValue command, or any Add/Move/Modify command using the Audit descriptor. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 38]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Statistics are cumulative; reporting Statistics does not reset them. Statistics are reset when a Termination is Subtracted from a Context. 7.1.16 Packages Descriptor Used only with the AuditValue command, the PackageDescriptor returns a list of Packages realized by the Termination. 7.1.17 ObservedEvents Descriptor ObservedEvents is supplied with the Notify command to inform the MGC of which event(s) were detected. Used with the AuditValue command, the ObservedEventsDescriptor returns events in the event buffer which have not been Notified. ObservedEvents contains the RequestIdentifier of the EventsDescriptor that triggered the notification, the event(s) detected and the detection time(s). Detection times are reported with a precision of hundredths of a second. Time is expressed in UTC. 7.1.18 Topology Descriptor A topology descriptor is used to specify flow directions between terminations in a Context. Contrary to the descriptors in previous sections, the topology descriptor applies to a Context instead of a Termination. The default topology of a Context is that each termination's transmission is received by all other terminations. The Topology Descriptor is optional to implement. The Topology Descriptor occurs before the commands in an action. It is possible to have an action containing only a Topology Descriptor, provided that the context to which the action applies already exists. A topology descriptor consists of a sequence of triples of the form (T1, T2, association). T1 and T2 specify Terminations within the Context, possibly using the ALL or CHOOSE wildcard. The association specifies how media flows between these two Terminations as follows. . (T1, T2, isolate) means that the Terminations matching T2 do not receive media from the Terminations matching T1, nor vice versa. . (T1, T2, oneway) means that the Terminations that match T2 receive media from the Terminations matching T1, but not vice versa. In this case use of the ALL wildcard such that there are Terminations that match both T1 and T2 is not allowed. . (T1, T2, bothway) means that the Terminations matching T2 receive media from the Terminations matching T1, and vice versa. In this case it is allowed to use wildcards such that there are Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 39]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Terminations that match both T1 and T2. However, if there is a Termination that matches both, no loopback is introduced; loopbacks are created by setting the TerminationMode. CHOOSE wildcards may be used in T1 and T2 as well, under the following restrictions: . the action (see section 8) of which the topology descriptor is part contains an Add command in which a CHOOSE wildcard is used; . if a CHOOSE wildcard occurs in T1 or T2, then a partial name SHALL NOT be specified. The CHOOSE wildcard in a topology descriptor matches the TerminationID that the MG assigns in the first Add command that uses a CHOOSE wildcard in the same action. An existing Termination that matches T1 or T2 in the Context to which a Termination is added, is connected to the newly added Termination as specified by the topology descriptor. The default association when a termination is not mentioned in the Topology descriptor is bothway (if T3 is added to a context with T1 and T2 with topology (T3,T1,oneway) it will be connected bothway to T2). Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 40]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The figure below and the table following it show some examples of the effect of including topology descriptors in actions. In these examples it is assumed that the topology descriptors are applied in sequence. Context 1 Context 2 Context 3 +------------------+ +------------------+ +------------------+ | +----+ | | +----+ | | +----+ | | | T2 | | | | T2 | | | | T2 | | | +----+ | | +----+ | | +----+ | | ^ ^ | | ^ | | ^ | | | | | | | | | | | | +--+ +--+ | | +---+ | | +--+ | | | | | | | | | | | | v v | | v | | | | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | +------------------+ +------------------+ +------------------+ 1. No Topology Desc. 2. T1, T2 Isolate 3. T3, T2 oneway Context 1 Context 2 Context 3 +------------------+ +------------------+ +------------------+ | +----+ | | +----+ | | +----+ | | | T2 | | | | T2 | | | | T2 | | | +----+ | | +----+ | | +----+ | | | | | ^ | | ^ ^ | | | | | | | | | | | | +--+ | | +---+ | | +--+ +--+ | | | | | | | | | | | | v | | v | | v v | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | | T1 |<-->| T3 | | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | | +----+ +----+ | +------------------+ +------------------+ +------------------+ 4. T2, T3 oneway 5. T2, T3 bothway 6. T1, T2 bothway Figure 4: A Sequence Of Example Topologies Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 41]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Topology Description 1 No topology descriptors When no topology descriptors are included, all terminations have a both way connection to all other terminations. 2 T1, T2, Isolate Removes the connection between T1 and T2. T3 has a both way connection with both T1 and T2. T1 and T2 have bothway connection to T3. 3 T3, T2, oneway A oneway connection from T3 to T2 (i.e. T2 receives media flow from T3). A bothway connection between T1 and T3. 4 T2, T3, oneway A oneway connection between T2 to T3. T1 and T3 remain bothway connected 5 T2, T3 bothway T2 is bothway connected to T3. This results in the same as 2. 6 T1, T2 bothway (T2, T3 bothway and T1,T3 bothway may be implied or explicit). All terminations have a bothway connection to all other terminations. A oneway connection must implemented in such a way that the other Terminations in the Context are not aware of the change in topology. 7.2 Command Application Programming Interface Following is an Application Programming Interface (API) describing the Commands of the protocol. This API is shown to illustrate the Commands and their parameters and is not intended to specify implementation (e.g. via use of blocking function calls). It describes the input parameters in parentheses after the command name and the return values in front of the Command. This is only for descriptive purposes; the actual Command syntax and encoding are specified in later subsections. All parameters enclosed by square brackets ([. . . ]) are considered optional. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 42]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 7.2.1 Add The Add Command adds a Termination to a Context. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,DigitMapDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] [,StatisticsDescriptor] [,PackagesDescriptor] Add( TerminationID [, MediaDescriptor] [, ModemDescriptor] [, MuxDescriptor] [, EventsDescriptor] [, SignalsDescriptor] [, DigitMapDescriptor] [, AuditDescriptor] ) The TerminationID specifies the termination to be added to the Context. The Termination is either created, or taken from the null Context. For an existing Termination, the TerminationID would be specific. For a Termination that does not yet exist, the TerminationID is specified as CHOOSE in the command. The new TerminationID will be returned. Wildcards may be used in an Add, but such usage would be unusual. If the wildcard matches more than one TerminationID, all possible matches are attempted, with results reported for each one. The order of attempts when multiple TerminationIDs match is not specified. The optional MediaDescriptor describes all media streams. The optional ModemDescriptor and MuxDescriptor specify a modem and multiplexer if applicable. For convenience, if a Multiplex Descriptor is present in an Add command and lists any Terminations that are not currently in the Context, such Terminations are added to the context as if individual Add commands listing the Terminations were invoked. If an error occurs on such an implied Add, error 471 - Implied Add for Multiplex failure shall be returned and further processing of the command shall cease. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 43]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The EventsDescriptor parameter is optional. If present, it provides the list of events that should be detected on the Termination. The SignalsDescriptor parameter is optional. If present, it provides the list of signals that should be applied to the Termination. The DigitMapDescriptor parameter is optional. If present, defines a DigitMap definition that may be used in an EventsDescriptor. The AuditDescriptor is optional. If present, the command will return descriptors as specified in the AuditDescriptor. All descriptors that can be modified could be returned by MG if a parameter was underspecified or overspecified. ObservedEvents, Statistics, and Packages, and the EventBuffer Descriptors are returned only if requested in the AuditDescriptor. Add SHALL NOT be used on a Termination with a serviceState of "OutofService". 7.2.2 Modify The Modify Command modifies the properties of a Termination. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,DigitMapDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] [,StatisticsDescriptor] [,PackagesDescriptor] Modify( TerminationID [, MediaDescriptor] [, ModemDescriptor] [, MuxDescriptor] [, EventsDescriptor] [, SignalsDescriptor] [, DigitMapDescriptor] [, AuditDescriptor] ) The TerminationID may be specific if a single Termination in the Context is to be modified. Use of wildcards in the TerminationID may be appropriate for some operations. If the wildcard matches more than one TerminationID, all possible matches are attempted, with results reported for each one. The order of attempts when multiple Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 44]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 TerminationIDs match is not specified. The CHOOSE option is an error, as the Modify command may only be used on existing Terminations. The remaining parameters to Modify are the same as those to Add. Possible return values are the same as those to Add. 7.2.3 Subtract The Subtract Command disconnects a Termination from its Context and returns statistics on the Termination's participation in the Context. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,DigitMapDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] [,StatisticsDescriptor] [,PackagesDescriptor] Subtract(TerminationID [, AuditDescriptor] ) TerminationID in the input parameters represents the Termination that is being subtracted. The TerminationID may be specific or may be a wildcard value indicating that all (or a set of related) Terminations in the Context of the Subtract Command are to be subtracted. If the wildcard matches more than one TerminationID, all possible matches are attempted, with results reported for each one. The order of attempts when multiple TerminationIDs match is not specified. The CHOOSE option is an error, as the Subtract command may only be used on existing Terminations. ALL may be used as the ContextID as well as the TerminationId in a Subtract, which would have the effect of deleting all contexts, deleting all ephemeral terminations, and returning all physical terminations to Null context. By default, the Statistics parameter is returned to report information collected on the Termination or Terminations specified in the Command. The information reported applies to the Termination's or Terminations' existence in the Context from which it or they are being subtracted. The AuditDescriptor is optional. If present, the command will return descriptors as specified in the AuditDescriptor. Possible return values are the same as those to Add. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 45]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 When a provisioned Termination is Subtracted from a context, its property values shall revert to: . the default value, if specified for the property and not overridden by provisioning, . otherwise, the provisioned value. 7.2.4 Move The Move Command moves a Termination to another Context from its current Context in one atomic operation. The Move command is the only command that refers to a Termination in a Context different from that to which the command is applied. The Move command shall not be used to move Terminations to or from the null Context. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,DigitMapDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] [,StatisticsDescriptor] [,PackagesDescriptor] Move( TerminationID [, MediaDescriptor] [, ModemDescriptor] [, MuxDescriptor] [, EventsDescriptor] [, SignalsDescriptor] [, DigitMapDescriptor] [, AuditDescriptor] ) The TerminationID specifies the Termination to be moved. It may be wildcarded. If the wildcard matches more than one TerminationID, all possible matches are attempted, with results reported for each one. The order of attempts when multiple TerminationIDs match is not specified. By convention, the Termination is subtracted from its previous Context. The Context to which the Termination is moved is indicated by the target ContextId in the Action. If the last remaining Termination is moved out of a Context, the Context is deleted. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 46]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The remaining descriptors are processed as in the Modify Command. The AuditDescriptor with the Statistics option, for example, would return statistics on the Termination just prior to the Move. Possible descriptors returned from Move are the same as for Add. Move SHALL NOT be used on a Termination with a serviceState of "OutofService". 7.2.5 AuditValue The AuditValue Command returns the current values of properties, events, signals and statistics associated with Terminations. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,DigitMapDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] [,StatisticsDescriptor] [,PackagesDescriptor] AuditValue(TerminationID, AuditDescriptor ) TerminationID may be specific or wildcarded. If the wildcard matches more than one TerminationID, all possible matches are attempted, with results reported for each one. The order of attempts when multiple TerminationIDs match is not specified. If a wildcarded response is requested, only one command return is generated, with the contents containing the union of the values of all Terminations matching the wildcard. This convention may reduce the volume of data required to audit a group of Terminations. Use of CHOOSE is an error. The appropriate descriptors, with the current values for the Termination, are returned from AuditValue. Values appearing in multiple instances of a descriptor are defined to be alternate values supported, with each parameter in a descriptor considered independent. ObservedEvents returns a list of events in the EventBuffer, PackagesDescriptor returns a list of packages realized by the Termination. DigitMapDescriptor returns the name or value of the current DigitMap for the Termination. DigitMap requested in an AuditValue command with TerminationID ALL returns all DigitMaps in the gateway. Statistics returns the current values of all statistics Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 47]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 being kept on the Termination. Specifying an empty Audit Descriptor results in only the TerminationID being returned. This may be useful to get a list of TerminationIDs when used with wildcard. AuditValue results depend on the Context, viz. specific, null, or wildcarded. The TerminationID may be specific, or wildcarded. The following illustrates other information that can be obtained with the Audit Command: ContextID TerminationID Information Obtained Specific wildcard Audit of matching Terminations in a Context Specific specific Audit of a single Termination in a Context Null Root Audit of Media Gateway state and events Null wildcard Audit of all matching Terminations in the Null Context Null specific Audit of a single Termination outside of any Context All wildcard Audit of all matching Terminations and the Context to which they are associated All Root List of all ContextIds 7.2.6 AuditCapabilities The AuditCapabilities Command returns the possible values of properties, events, signals and statistics associated with Terminations. TerminationID [,MediaDescriptor] [,ModemDescriptor] [,MuxDescriptor] [,EventsDescriptor] [,SignalsDescriptor] [,ObservedEventsDescriptor] [,EventBufferDescriptor] Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 48]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 [,StatisticsDescriptor] AuditCapabilities(TerminationID, AuditDescriptor ) The appropriate descriptors, with the possible values for the Termination are returned from AuditCapabilities. Descriptors may be repeated where there are multiple possible values. If a wildcarded response is requested, only one command return is generated, with the contents containing the union of the values of all Terminations matching the wildcard. This convention may reduce the volume of data required to audit a group of Terminations. Interpretation of what capabilities are requested for various values of ContextID and TerminationID is the same as in AuditValue. The EventsDescriptor returns the list of possible events on the Termination together with the list of all possible values for the EventsDescriptor Parameters. The SignalsDescriptor returns the list of possible signals that could be applied to the Termination together with the list of all possible values for the Signals Parameters. StatisticsDescriptor returns the names of the statistics being kept on the termination. ObservedEventsDescriptor returns the names of active events on the termination. DigitMap and Packages are not legal in AuditCapability. 7.2.7 Notify The Notify Command allows the Media Gateway to notify the Media Gateway Controller of events occurring within the Media Gateway. Notify(TerminationID, ObservedEventsDescriptor, [ErrorDescriptor] ) The TerminationID parameter specifies the Termination issuing the Notify Command. The TerminationID shall be a fully qualified name. The ObservedEventsDescriptor contains the RequestID and a list of events that the Media Gateway detected in the order that they were detected. Each event in the list is accompanied by parameters associated with the event and an indication of the time that the event was detected. Procedures for sending Notify commands with RequestID equal to 0 are for further study. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 49]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Notify Commands with RequestID not equal to 0 shall occur only as the result of detection of an event specified by an Events Descriptor which is active on the termination concerned. The RequestID returns the RequestID parameter of the EventsDescriptor that triggered the Notify Command. It is used to correlate the notification with the request that triggered it. The events in the list must have been requested via the triggering EventsDescriptor or embedded events descriptor unless the RequestID is 0 (which is for further study). 7.2.8 ServiceChange The ServiceChange Command allows the Media Gateway to notify the Media Gateway Controller that a Termination or group of Terminations is about to be taken out of service or has just been returned to service. The Media Gateway Controller may indicate that Termination(s) shall be taken out of or returned to service. The Media Gateway may notify the MGC that the capability of a Termination has changed. It also allows a MGC to hand over control of a MG to another MGC. TerminationID, [ServiceChangeDescriptor] ServiceChange(TerminationID, ServiceChangeDescriptor ) The TerminationID parameter specifies the Termination(s) that are taken out of or returned to service. Wildcarding of Termination names is permitted, with the exception that the CHOOSE mechanism shall not be used. Use of the "Root" TerminationID indicates a ServiceChange affecting the entire Media Gateway. The ServiceChangeDescriptor contains the following parameters as required: . ServiceChangeMethod . ServiceChangeReason . ServiceChangeDelay . ServiceChangeAddress . ServiceChangeProfile . ServiceChangeVersion . ServiceChangeMgcId . TimeStamp The ServiceChangeMethod parameter specifies the type of ServiceChange that will or has occurred: Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 50]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 1) Graceful - indicates that the specified Terminations will be taken out of service after the specified ServiceChangeDelay; established connections are not yet affected, but the Media Gateway Controller should refrain from establishing new connections and should attempt to gracefully tear down existing connections. The MG should set termination serviceState at the expiry of ServiceChangeDelay or the removal of the termination from an active context (whichever is first), to "out of service". 2) Forced - indicates that the specified Terminations were taken abruptly out of service and any established connections associated with them were lost. The MGC is responsible for cleaning up the context (if any) with which the failed termination is associated. At a minimum the termination shall be subtracted from the context. The termination serviceState should be "out of service". 3) Restart - indicates that service will be restored on the specified Terminations after expiration of the ServiceChangeDelay. The serviceState should be set to "inService" upon expiry of ServiceChangeDelay. 4) Disconnected - always applied with the Root TerminationID, indicates that the MG lost communication with the MGC, but it was subsequently restored. Since MG state may have changed, the MGC may wish to use the Audit command to resynchronize its state with the MG's. 5) Handoff - sent from the MGC to the MG, this reason indicates that the MGC is going out of service and a new MGC association must be established. Sent from the MG to the MGC, this indicates that the MG is attempting to establish a new association in accordance with a Handoff received from the MGC with which it was previously associated. 6) Failover - sent from MG to MGC to indicate the primary MG is out of service and a secondary MG is taking over. 7) Another value whose meaning is mutually understood between the MG and the MGC. The ServiceChangeReason parameter specifies the reason why the ServiceChange has or will occur. It consists of an alphanumeric token (IANA registered) and an explanatory string. The optional ServiceChangeAddress parameter specifies the address (e.g., IP port number for IP networks) to be used for subsequent communications. It can be specified in the input parameter descriptor or the returned result descriptor. ServiceChangeAddress Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 51]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 and ServiceChangeMgcId parameters must not both be present in the ServiceChangeDescriptor or the ServiceChangeResultDescriptor. The serviceChangeAddress provides an address to be used within the context of the association currently being negotiated, while the ServiceChangeMgcId provides an alternate address where the MG should seek to establish another association. The optional ServiceChangeDelay parameter is expressed in seconds. If the delay is absent or set to zero, the delay value should be considered to be null. In the case of a "graceful" ServiceChangeMethod, a null delay indicates that the Media Gateway Controller should wait for the natural removal of existing connections and should not establish new connections. . For "graceful" only, a null delay means the MG must not set serviceState "out of service" until the termination is in the null context. The optional ServiceChangeProfile parameter specifies the Profile (if any) of the protocol supported. The ServiceChangeProfile includes the version of the profile supported. The optional ServiceChangeVersion parameter contains the protocol version and is used if protocol version negotiation occurs (see section 11.3). The optional TimeStamp parameter specifies the actual time as kept by the sender. It can be used by the responder to determine how its notion of time differs from that of its correspondent. TimeStamp is sent with a precision of hundredths of a second, and is expressed in UTC. The optional Extension parameter may contain any value whose meaning is mutually understood by the MG and MGC. A ServiceChange Command specifying the "Root" for the TerminationID and ServiceChangeMethod equal to Restart is a registration command by which a Media Gateway announces its existence to the Media Gateway Controller. The Media Gateway is expected to be provisioned with the name of one primary and optionally some number of alternate Media Gateway Controllers. Acknowledgement of the ServiceChange Command completes the registration process. The MG may specify the transport ServiceChangeAddress to be used by the MGC for sending messages in the ServiceChangeAddress parameter in the input ServiceChangeDescriptor. The MG may specify an address in the ServiceChangeAddress parameter of the ServiceChange request, and the MGC may also do so in the ServiceChange reply. In either case, the recipient must use the supplied address as the destination for all subsequent transaction requests within the association. At the same time, as indicated in section 9, transaction replies and pending Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 52]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 indications must be sent to the address from which the corresponding requests originated. This must be done even if it implies extra messaging because commands and responses cannot be packed together. The TimeStamp parameter shall be sent with a registration command and its response. The Media Gateway Controller may return an ServiceChangeMgcId parameter that describes the Media Gateway Controller that should preferably be contacted for further service by the Media Gateway. In this case the Media Gateway shall reissue the ServiceChange command to the new Media Gateway Controller. The Gateway specified in an ServiceChangeMgcId, if provided, shall be contacted before any further alternate MGCs. On a HandOff message from MGC to MG, the ServiceChangeMgcId is the new MGC that will take over from the current MGC. The return from ServiceChange is empty except when the Root terminationID is used. In that case it includes the following parameters as required: . ServiceChangeAddress, if the responding MGC wishes to specify an new destination for messages from the MG for the remainder of the association; . ServiceChangeMgcId, if the responding MGC does not wish to sustain an association with the MG; . ServiceChangeProfile, if the responder wishes to negotiate the profile to be used for the association; . ServiceChangeVersion, if the responder wishes to negotiate the version of the protocol to be used for the association. The following ServiceChangeReasons are defined. This list may be extended by an IANA registration as outlined in section 13.3 900 Service Restored 901 Cold Boot 902 Warm Boot 903 MGC Directed Change 904 Termination malfunctioning 905 Termination taken out of service 906 Loss of lower layer connectivity (e.g. downstream sync) 907 Transmission Failure 908 MG Impending Failure 909 MGC Impending Failure 910 Media Capability Failure 911 Modem Capability Failure Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 53]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 912 Mux Capability Failure 913 Signal Capability Failure 914 Event Capability Failure 915 State Loss 7.2.9 Manipulating and Auditing Context Attributes The commands of the protocol as discussed in the preceding sections apply to terminations. This section specifies how contexts are manipulated and audited. Commands are grouped into actions (see section 8). An action applies to one context. In addition to commands, an action may contain context manipulation and auditing instructions. An action request sent to a MG may include a request to audit attributes of a context. An action may also include a request to change the attributes of a context. The context properties that may be included in an action reply are used to return information to a MGC. This can be information requested by an audit of context attributes or details of the effect of manipulation of a context. If a MG receives an action which contains both a request to audit context attributes and a request to manipulate those attributes, the response SHALL include the values of the attributes after processing the manipulation request. 7.2.10 Generic Command Syntax The protocol can be encoded in a binary format or in a text format. MGCs should support both encoding formats. MGs may support both formats. The protocol syntax for the binary format of the protocol is defined in Annex A. Annex C specifies the encoding of the Local and Remote descriptors for use with the binary format. A complete ABNF of the text encoding of the protocol per RFC2234 is given in Annex B. SDP is used as the encoding of the Local and Remote Descriptors for use with the text encoding as modified in section 7.1.8. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 54]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 7.3 Command Error Codes Errors consist of an IANA registered error code and an explanatory string. Sending the explanatory string is optional. Implementations are encouraged to append diagnostic information to the end of the string. When a MG reports an error to a MGC, it does so in an error descriptor. An error descriptor consists of an error code and optionally the associated explanatory string. The identified error codes are: 400 - Bad Request 401 - Protocol Error 402 - Unauthorized 403 - Syntax Error in Transaction 404 - Syntax Error in TransactionReply 405 - Syntax Error in TransactionPending 406 - Version Not Supported 410 - Incorrect identifier 411 - The transaction refers to an unknown ContextId 412 - No ContextIDs available 421 - Unknown action or illegal combination of actions 422 - Syntax Error in Action 430 - Unknown TerminationID 431 - No TerminationID matched a wildcard 432 - Out of TerminationIDs or No TerminationID available 433 - TerminationID is already in a Context 440 - Unsupported or unknown Package 441 - Missing RemoteDescriptor 442 - Syntax Error in Command 443 - Unsupported or Unknown Command 444 - Unsupported or Unknown Descriptor 445 - Unsupported or Unknown Property 446 - Unsupported or Unknown Parameter 447 - Descriptor not legal in this command 448 - Descriptor appears twice in a command 450 - No such property in this package 451 - No such event in this package 452 - No such signal in this package 453 - No such statistic in this package 454 - No such parameter value in this package 455 - Parameter illegal in this Descriptor 456 - Parameter or Property appears twice in this Descriptor 461 - TransactionIDs in Reply do not match Request Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 55]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 462 - Commands in Transaction Reply do not match commands in request 463 - TerminationID of Transaction Reply does not match request 464 - Missing reply in Transaction Reply 465 - TransactionID in Transaction Pending does not match any open request 466 - Illegal Duplicate Transaction Request 467 - Illegal Duplicate Transaction Reply 471 - Implied Add for Multiplex failure 500 - Internal Gateway Error 501 - Not Implemented 502 - Not ready. 503 - Service Unavailable 504 - Command Received from unauthorized entity 505 - Command Received before Restart Response 510 - Insufficient resources 512 - Media Gateway unequipped to detect requested Event 513 - Media Gateway unequipped to generate requested Signals 514 - Media Gateway cannot send the specified announcement 515 - Unsupported Media Type 517 - Unsupported or invalid mode 518 - Event buffer full 519 - Out of space to store digit map 520 - Media Gateway does not have a digit map 521 - Termination is "ServiceChangeing" 526 - Insufficient bandwidth 529 - Internal hardware failure 530 - Temporary Network failure 531 - Permanent Network failure 581 - Does Not Exist 8. TRANSACTIONS Commands between the Media Gateway Controller and the Media Gateway are grouped into Transactions, each of which is identified by a TransactionID. Transactions consist of one or more Actions. An Action consists of a series of Commands that are limited to operating within a single Context. Consequently each Action typically specifies a ContextID. However, there are two circumstances where a specific ContextID is not provided with an Action. One is the case of modification of a Termination outside of a Context. The other is where the controller requests the gateway to create a new Context. Following is a graphic representation of the Transaction, Action and Command relationships. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 56]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 +----------------------------------------------------------+ | Transaction x | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | | | Action 1 | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ | | | | | Command | | Command | | Command | | Command | | | | | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ | | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | | | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | | | Action 2 | | | | +---------+ | | | | | Command | | | | | | 1 | | | | | +---------+ | | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | | | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | | | Action 3 | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ | | | | | Command | | Command | | Command | | | | | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ | | | +----------------------------------------------------+ | +----------------------------------------------------------+ Figure 5 Transactions, Actions and Commands Transactions are presented as TransactionRequests. Corresponding responses to a TransactionRequest are received in a single reply, possibly preceded by a number of TransactionPending messages (see section 8.2.3). Transactions guarantee ordered Command processing. That is, Commands within a Transaction are executed sequentially. Ordering of Transactions is NOT guaranteed - transactions may be executed in any order, or simultaneously. At the first failing Command in a Transaction, processing of the remaining Commands in that Transaction stops. If a command contains a wildcarded TerminationID, the command is attempted with each of the actual TerminationIDs matching the wildcard. A response within the TransactionReply is included for each matching TerminationID, even if one or more instances generated an error. If any TerminationID matching a wildcard results in an error when executed, any commands following the wildcarded command are not attempted. Commands may be marked as "Optional" which can override this behaviour - if a Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 57]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 command marked as Optional results in an error, subsequent commands in the Transaction will be executed. A TransactionReply includes the results for all of the Commands in the corresponding TransactionRequest. The TransactionReply includes the return values for the Commands that were executed successfully, and the Command and error descriptor for any Command that failed. TransactionPending is used to periodically notify the receiver that a Transaction has not completed yet, but is actively being processed. Applications SHOULD implement an application level timer per transaction. Expiration of the timer should cause a retransmission of the request. Receipt of a Reply should cancel the timer. Receipt of Pending should restart the timer. 8.1 Common Parameters 8.1.1 Transaction Identifiers Transactions are identified by a TransactionID, which is assigned by sender and is unique within the scope of the sender. 8.1.2 Context Identifiers Contexts are identified by a ContextID, which is assigned by the Media Gateway and is unique within the scope of the Media Gateway. The Media Gateway Controller shall use the ContextID supplied by the Media Gateway in all subsequent Transactions relating to that Context. The protocol makes reference to a distinguished value that may be used by the Media Gateway Controller when referring to a Termination that is currently not associated with a Context, namely the null ContextID. The CHOOSE wildcard is used to request that the Media Gateway create a new Context. The MGC shall not use partially specified ContextIDs containing the CHOOSE wildcard. The MGC may use the ALL wildcard to address all Contexts on the MG. 8.2 Transaction Application Programming Interface Following is an Application Programming Interface (API) describing the Transactions of the protocol. This API is shown to illustrate the Transactions and their parameters and is not intended to specify implementation (e.g. via use of blocking function calls). It will describe the input parameters and return values expected to be used by the various Transactions of the protocol from a very high level. Transaction syntax and encodings are specified in later subsections. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 58]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 8.2.1 TransactionRequest The TransactionRequest is invoked by the sender. There is one Transaction per request invocation. A request contains one or more Actions, each of which specifies its target Context and one or more Commands per Context. TransactionRequest(TransactionId { ContextID {Command _ Command}, . . . ContextID {Command _ Command } }) The TransactionID parameter must specify a value for later correlation with the TransactionReply or TransactionPending response from the receiver. The ContextID parameter must specify a value to pertain to all Commands that follow up to either the next specification of a ContextID parameter or the end of the TransactionRequest, whichever comes first. The Command parameter represents one of the Commands mentioned in the "Command Details" subsection titled "Application Programming Interface". 8.2.2 TransactionReply The TransactionReply is invoked by the receiver. There is one reply invocation per transaction. A reply contains one or more Actions, each of which must specify its target Context and one or more Responses per Context. TransactionReply(TransactionID { ContextID { Response _ Response }, . . . ContextID { Response _ Response } }) The TransactionID parameter must be the same as that of the corresponding TransactionRequest. The ContextID parameter must specify a value to pertain to all Responses for the action. The ContextID may be specific or null. Each of the Response parameters represents a return value as mentioned in section 7.2, or an error descriptor if the command execution encountered an error. Commands after the point of failure are not processed and, therefore, Responses are not issued for them. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 59]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 An exception to this occurs if a command has been marked as optional in the Transaction request. If the optional command generates an error, the transaction still continues to execute, so the Reply would, in this case, have Responses after an Error. If the receiver encounters an error in processing a ContextID, the requested Action response will consist of the context ID and a single error descriptor, 422 Syntax Error in Action. If the receiver encounters an error such that it cannot determine a legal Action, it will return a TransactionReply consisting of the TransactionID and a single error descriptor, 422 Syntax Error in Action. If the end of an action cannot be reliably determined but one or more Actions can be parsed, it will process them and then send 422 Syntax Error in Action as the last action for the transaction. If the receiver encounters an error such that is cannot determine a legal Transaction, it will return a TransactionReply with a null TransactionID and a single error descriptor (403 Syntax Error in Transaction). If the end of a transaction can not be reliably determined and one or more Actions can be parsed, it will process them and then return 403 Syntax Error in Transaction as the last action reply for the transaction. If no Actions can be parsed, it will return 403 Syntax Error in Transaction as the only reply If the terminationID cannot be reliably determined it will send 442 Syntax Error in Command as the action reply. If the end of a command cannot be reliably determined it will return 442 Syntax Error in Transaction as the reply to the last action it can parse. 8.2.3 TransactionPending The receiver invokes the TransactionPending. A TransactionPending indicates that the Transaction is actively being processed, but has not been completed. It is used to prevent the sender from assuming the TransactionRequest was lost where the Transaction will take some time to complete. TransactionPending(TransactionID { } ) The TransactionID parameter must be the same as that of the corresponding TransactionRequest. A property of root (normalMGExecutionTime) is settable by the MGC to indicate the interval within which the MGC expects a response to any transaction from the MG. Another property (normalMGCExecutionTime) is settable Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 60]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 by the MGC to indicate the interval within which the MG should expects a response to any transaction from the MGC. Senders may receive more than one TransactionPending for a command. If a duplicate request is received when pending, the responder may send a duplicate pending immediately, or continue waiting for its timer to trigger another Transaction Pending. 8.3 Messages Multiple Transactions can be concatenated into a Message. Messages have a header, which includes the identity of the sender. The Message Identifier (MID) of a message is set to a provisioned name (e.g. domain address/domain name/device name) of the entity transmitting the message. Domain name is a suggested default. Every Message contains a Version Number identifying the version of the protocol the message conforms to. Versions consist of one or two digits, beginning with version 1 for the present version of the protocol. The transactions in a message are treated independently. There is no order implied, there is no application or protocol acknowledgement of a message. 9. TRANSPORT The transport mechanism for the protocol should allow the reliable transport of transactions between an MGC and MG. The transport shall remain independent of what particular commands are being sent and shall be applicable to all application states. There are several transports defined for the protocol, which are defined in normative Annexes to this document. Additional Transports may be defined as additional annexes in subsequent editions of this document, or in separate documents. For transport of the protocol over IP, MGCs shall implement both TCP and UDP/ALF, an MG shall implement TCP or UDP/ALF or both. The MG is provisioned with a name or address (such as DNS name or IP address) of a primary and zero or more secondary MGCs (see section 7.2.8) that is the address the MG uses to send messages to the MGC. If TCP or UDP is used as the protocol transport and the port to which the initial ServiceChange request is to be sent is not otherwise known, that request should be sent to the default port number for the protocol. This port number is 2944 for text-encoded operation or 2945 for binary-encoded operation, for either UDP or TCP. The MGC receives the message containing the ServiceChange request from the MG and can determine the MG's address from it. As described in section 7.2.8, either the MG or the MGC may supply an address in the Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 61]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ServiceChangeAddress parameter to which subsequent transaction requests must be addressed, but responses (including the response to the initial ServiceChange request) must always be sent back to the address which was the source of the corresponding request. 9.1 Ordering of Commands This document does not mandate that the underlying transport protocol guarantees the sequencing of transactions sent to an entity. This property tends to maximize the timeliness of actions, but it has a few drawbacks. For example: . Notify commands may be delayed and arrive at the MGC after the transmission of a new command changing the EventsDescriptor . If a new command is transmitted before a previous one is acknowledged, there is no guarantee that prior command will be executed before the new one. Media Gateway Controllers that want to guarantee consistent operation of the Media Gateway may use the following rules. These rules are with respect to commands that are in different transactions. Commands that are in the same transaction are executed in order (see section 8). 1. When a Media Gateway handles several Terminations, commands pertaining to the different Terminations may be sent in parallel, for example following a model where each Termination (or group of Terminations) is controlled by its own process or its own thread. 2. On a Termination, there should normally be at most one outstanding command (Add or Modify or Move), unless the outstanding commands are in the same transaction. However, a Subtract command may be issued at any time. In consequence, a Media Gateway may sometimes receive a Modify command that applies to a previously subtracted Termination. Such commands should be ignored, and an error code should be returned. 3. On a given Termination, there should normally be at most one outstanding Notify command at any time. 4. In some cases, an implicitly or explicitly wildcarded Subtract command that applies to a group of Terminations may step in front of a pending Add command. The Media Gateway Controller should individually delete all Terminations for which an Add command was pending at the time of the global Subtract command. Also, new Add Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 62]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 commands for Terminations named by the wild-carding (or implied in a Multiplex descriptor) should not be sent until the wild-carded Subtract command is acknowledged. 5. AuditValue and AuditCapability are not subject to any sequencing. 6. ServiceChange shall always be the first command sent by a MG as defined by the restart procedure. Any other command or response must be delivered after this ServiceChange command. These rules do not affect the command responder, which should always respond to commands. 9.2 Protection against Restart Avalanche In the event that a large number of Media Gateways are powered on simultaneously and they were to all initiate a ServiceChange transaction, the Media Gateway Controller would very likely be swamped, leading to message losses and network congestion during the critical period of service restoration. In order to prevent such avalanches, the following behavior is suggested: 1. When a Media Gateway is powered on, it should initiate a restart timer to a random value, uniformly distributed between 0 and a maximum waiting delay (MWD). Care should be taken to avoid synchronicity of the random number generation between multiple Media Gateways that would use the same algorithm. 2. The Media Gateway should then wait for either the end of this timer or the detection of a local user activity, such as for example an off-hook transition on a residential Media Gateway. 3. When the timer elapses, or when an activity is detected, the Media Gateway should initiate the restart procedure. The restart procedure simply requires the MG to guarantee that the first message that the Media Gateway Controller sees from this MG is a ServiceChange message informing the Media Gateway Controller about the restart. Note - The value of MWD is a configuration parameter that depends on the type of the Media Gateway. The following reasoning may be used to determine the value of this delay on residential gateways. Media Gateway Controllers are typically dimensioned to handle the peak hour traffic load, during which, in average, 10% of the lines will be busy, placing calls whose average duration is typically 3 minutes. The processing of a call typically involves 5 to 6 Media Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 63]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Gateway Controller transactions between each Media Gateway and the Media Gateway Controller. This simple calculation shows that the Media Gateway Controller is expected to handle 5 to 6 transactions for each Termination, every 30 minutes on average, or, to put it otherwise, about one transaction per Termination every 5 to 6 minutes on average. This suggests that a reasonable value of MWD for a residential gateway would be 10 to 12 minutes. In the absence of explicit configuration, residential gateways should adopt a value of 600 seconds for MWD. The same reasoning suggests that the value of MWD should be much shorter for trunking gateways or for business gateways, because they handle a large number of Terminations, and also because the usage rate of these Terminations is much higher than 10% during the peak busy hour, a typical value being 60%. These Terminations, during the peak hour, are this expected to contribute about one transaction per minute to the Media Gateway Controller load. A reasonable algorithm is to make the value of MWD per "trunk" Termination six times shorter than the MWD per residential gateway, and also inversely proportional to the number of Terminations that are being restarted. For example MWD should be set to 2.5 seconds for a gateway that handles a T1 line, or to 60 milliseconds for a gateway that handles a T3 line. 10. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS This section covers security when using the protocol in an IP environment. 10.1 Protection of Protocol Connections A security mechanism is clearly needed to prevent unauthorized entities from using the protocol defined in this document for setting up unauthorized calls or interfering with authorized calls. The security mechanism for the protocol when transported over IP networks is IPsec [RFC2401 to RFC2411]. The AH header [RFC2402] affords data origin authentication, connectionless integrity and optional anti-replay protection of messages passed between the MG and the MGC. The ESP header [RFC2406] provides confidentiality of messages, if desired. For instance, the ESP encryption service should be requested if the session descriptions are used to carry session keys, as defined in SDP. Implementations of the protocol defined in this document employing the ESP header SHALL comply with section 5 of [RFC2406], which defines a minimum set of algorithms for integrity checking and Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 64]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 encryption. Similarly, implementations employing the AH header SHALL comply with section 5 of [RFC2402], which defines a minimum set of algorithms for integrity checking using manual keys. Implementations SHOULD use IKE [RFC2409] to permit more robust keying options. Implementations employing IKE SHOULD support authentication with RSA signatures and RSA public key encryption. 10.2 Interim AH scheme Implementation of IPsec requires that the AH or ESP header be inserted immediately after the IP header. This cannot be easily done at the application level. Therefore, this presents a deployment problem for the protocol defined in this document where the underlying network implementation does not support IPsec. As an interim solution, an optional AH header is defined within the H.248 protocol header. The header fields are exactly those of the SPI, SEQUENCE NUMBER and DATA fields as defined in [RFC2402]. The semantics of the header fields are the same as the "transport mode" of [RFC2402], except for the calculation of the Integrity Check value (ICV). In IPsec, the ICV is calculated over the entire IP packet including the IP header. This prevents spoofing of the IP addresses. To retain the same functionality, the ICV calculation should be performed across the entire transaction prepended by a synthesized IP header consisting of a 32 bit source IP address, a 32 bit destination address and an 16 bit UDP encoded as 10 hex digits. When the interim AH mechanism is employed when TCP is the transport Layer, the UDP Port above becomes the TCP port, and all other operations are the same. Implementations of the H.248 protocol SHALL implement IPsec where the underlying operating system and the transport network supports IPsec. Implementations of the protocol using IPv4 SHALL implement the interim AH scheme. However, this interim scheme SHALL NOT be used when the underlying network layer supports IPsec. IPv6 implementations are assumed to support IPsec and SHALL NOT use the interim AH scheme. All implementations of the interim AH mechanism SHALL comply with section 5 of [RFC2402] which defines a minimum set of algorithms for integrity checking using manual keys. The interim AH interim scheme does not provide protection against eavesdropping; thus forbidding third parties from monitoring the connections set up by a given termination. Also, it does not provide protection against replay attacks. These procedures do not necessarily protect against denial of service attacks by misbehaving Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 65]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 MGs or misbehaving MGCs. However, they will provide an identification of these misbehaving entities, which should then be deprived of their authorization through maintenance procedures. 10.3 Protection of Media Connections The protocol allows the MGC to provide MGs with "session keys" that can be used to encrypt the audio messages, protecting against eavesdropping. A specific problem of packet networks is "uncontrolled barge-in". This attack can be performed by directing media packets to the IP address and UDP port used by a connection. If no protection is implemented, the packets must be decompressed and the signals must be played on the "line side". A basic protection against this attack is to only accept packets from known sources, checking for example that the IP source address and UDP source port match the values announced in the Remote Descriptor. This has two inconveniences: it slows down connection establishment and it can be fooled by source spoofing: . To enable the address-based protection, the MGC must obtain the remote session description of the egress MG and pass it to the ingress MG. This requires at least one network roundtrip, and leaves us with a dilemma: either allow the call to proceed without waiting for the round trip to complete, and risk for example, "clipping" a remote announcement, or wait for the full roundtrip and settle for slower call-set-up procedures. . Source spoofing is only effective if the attacker can obtain valid pairs of source destination addresses and ports, for example by listening to a fraction of the traffic. To fight source spoofing, one could try to control all access points to the network. But this is in practice very hard to achieve. An alternative to checking the source address is to encrypt and authenticate the packets, using a secret key that is conveyed during the call set-up procedure. This will not slow down the call set-up, and provides strong protection against address spoofing. 11. MG-MGC CONTROL INTERFACE The control association between MG and MGC is initiated at MG cold start, and announced by a ServiceChange message, but can be changed by subsequent events, such as failures or manual service events. While the protocol does not have an explicit mechanism to support Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 66]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 multiple MGCs controlling a physical MG, it has been designed to support the multiple logical MG (within a single physical MG) that can be associated with different MGCs. 11.1 Multiple Virtual MGs A physical Media Gateway may be partitioned into one or more Virtual MGs. A virtual MG consists of a set of statically partitioned physical Terminations and/or sets of ephemeral Terminations. A physical Termination is controlled by one MGC. The model does not require that other resources be statically allocated, just Terminations. The mechanism for allocating Terminations to virtual MGs is a management method outside the scope of the protocol. Each of the virtual MGs appears to the MGC as a complete MG client. A physical MG may have only one network interface, which must be shared across virtual MGs. In such a case, the packet/cell side Termination is shared. It should be noted however, that in use, such interfaces require an ephemeral instance of the Termination to be created per flow, and thus sharing the Termination is straightforward. This mechanism does lead to a complication, namely that the MG must always know which of its controlling MGCs should be notified if an event occurs on the interface. In normal operation, the Virtual MG will be instructed by the MGC to create network flows (if it is the originating side), or to expect flow requests (if it is the terminating side), and no confusion will arise. However, if an unexpected event occurs, the Virtual MG must know what to do with respect to the physical resources it is controlling. If recovering from the event requires manipulation of a physical interface's state, only one MGC should do so. These issues are resolved by allowing any of the MGCs to create EventsDescriptors to be notified of such events, but only one MGC can have read/write access to the physical interface properties; all other MGCs have read-only access. The management mechanism is used to designate which MGC has read/write capability, and is designated the Master MGC. Each virtual MG has its own Root Termination. In most cases the values for the properties of the Root Termination are independently settable by each MGC. Where there can only be one value, the parameter is read-only to all but the Master MGC. ServiceChange may only be applied to a Termination or set of Terminations partitioned to the Virtual MG or created (in the case of ephemeral Terminations) by that Virtual MG. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 67]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 11.2 Cold Start A MG is pre-provisioned by a management mechanism outside the scope of this protocol with a Primary and (optionally) an ordered list of Secondary MGCs. Upon a cold start of the MG, it will issue a ServiceChange command with a "Restart" method, on the Root Termination to its primary MGC. If the MGC accepts the MG, it will send a Transaction Accept, with the ServiceChangeMgcId set to itself. If the MG receives an ServiceChangeMgcId not equal to the MGC it contacted, it sends a ServiceChange to the MGC specified in the ServiceChangeMgcId. It continues this process until it gets a controlling MGC to accept its registration, or it fails to get a reply. Upon failure to obtain a reply, either from the Primary MGC, or a designated successor, the MG tries its pre-provisioned Secondary MGCs, in order. If the MG is unable to comply and it has established a transport connection to the MGC, it should close that connection. In any event, it should reject all subsequent requests from the MGC with Error 406 Version Not Supported. It is possible that the reply to a ServiceChange with Restart will be lost, and a command will be received by the MG prior to the receipt of the ServiceChange response. The MG shall issue error 505 - Command Received before Restart Response. 11.3 Negotiation of Protocol Version The first ServiceChange command from an MG shall contain the version number of the protocol supported by the MG in the ServiceChangeVersion parameter. Upon receiving such a message, if the MGC supports only a lower version, then the MGC shall send a ServiceChangeReply with the lower version and thereafter all the messages between MG and MGC shall conform to the lower version of the protocol. If the MG is unable to comply and it has established a transport connection to the MGC, it should close that connection. In any event, it should reject all subsequent requests from the MGC with Error 406 Version Not supported. If the MGC supports a higher version than the MG but is able to support the lower version proposed by the MG, it shall send a ServiceChangeReply with the lower version and thereafter all the messages between MG and MGC shall conform to the lower version of the protocol. If the MGC is unable to comply, it shall reject the association, with Error 406 Version Not Supported. Protocol version negotiation may also occur at "handoff" and "failover" ServiceChanges. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 68]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 When extending the protocol with new versions, the following rules should be followed. 1. Existing protocol elements, i.e., procedures, parameters, descriptor, property, values, should not be changed unless a protocol error needs to be corrected or it becomes necessary to change the operation of the service that is being supported by the protocol. 2. The semantics of a command, a parameter, descriptor, property, value should not be changed. 3. Established rules for formatting and encoding messages and parameters should not be modified. 4. When information elements are found to be obsolete they can be marked as not used. However, the identifier for that information element will be marked as reserved. In that way it can not be used in future versions. 11.4 Failure of an MG If a MG fails, but is capable of sending a message to the MGC, it sends a ServiceChange with an appropriate method (graceful or forced) and specifies the Root TerminationID. When it returns to service, it sends a ServiceChange with a "Restart" method. Allowing the MGC to send duplicate messages to both MGs accommodates pairs of MGs that are capable of redundant failover of one of the MGs. Only the Working MG shall accept or reject transactions. Upon failover, the Primary MG sends a ServiceChange command with a "Failover" method and a "MG Impending Failure" reason. The MGC then uses the primary MG as the active MG. When the error condition is repaired, the Working MG can send a "ServiceChange" with a "Restart" method. 11.5 Failure of an MGC If the MG detects a failure of its controlling MGC, it attempts to contact the next MGC on its pre-provisioned list. It starts its attempts at the beginning (Primary MGC), unless that was the MGC that failed, in which case it starts at its first Secondary MGC. It sends a ServiceChange message with a "Failover" method and a " MGC Impending Failure" reason. In partial failure, or manual maintenance reasons, an MGC may wish to direct its controlled MGs to use a different MGC. To do so, it sends a ServiceChange method to the MG with a "HandOff" method, and its Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 69]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 designated replacement in ServiceChangeMgcId. The MG should send a ServiceChange message with a "Handoff" method and a "MGC directed change" reason to the designated MGC. If it fails to get a reply, or fails to see an Audit command subsequently, it should behave as if its MGC failed, and start contacting secondary MGCs. If the MG is unable to establish a control relationship with any MGC, it shall wait a random amount of time as described in section 9.2 and then start contacting its primary, and if necessary, its secondary MGCs again. No recommendation is made on how the MGCs involved in the Handoff maintain state information; this is considered to be out of scope of this recommendation. The MGC and MG may take the following steps when Handoff occurs. When the MGC initiates a HandOff, the handover should be transparent to Operations on the Media Gateway. Transactions can be executed in any order, and could be in progress when the ServiceChange is executed. Accordingly, commands in progress continue, transaction replies are sent to the new MGC (after a new control association is established), and the MG should expect outstanding transaction replies from the new MGC. No new messages shall be sent to the new MGC until the control association is established. Repeated transaction requests shall be directed to the new MGC. The MG shall maintain state on all terminations and contexts. It is possible that the MGC could be implemented in such a way that a failed MGC is replaced by a working MGC where the identity of the new MGC is the same as the failed one. In such a case, ServiceChangeMgcId would be specified with the previous value and the MG shall behave as if the value was changed, and send a ServiceChange message, as above. Pairs of MGCs that are capable of redundant failover can notify the controlled MGs of the failover by the above mechanism. 12. PACKAGE DEFINITION The primary mechanism for extension is by means of Packages. Packages define additional Properties, Events, Signals and Statistics that may occur on Terminations. Packages defined by IETF will appear in separate RFCs. Packages defined by ITU-T may appear in the relevant recommendations (e.g. as annexes). Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 70]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 1. A public document or a standard forum document, which can be referenced as the document that describes the package following the guideline above, should be specified. 2. The document shall specify the version of the Package that it describes. 3. The document should be available on a public web server and should have a stable URL. The site should provide a mechanism to provide comments and appropriate responses should be returned. 12.1 Guidelines for defining packages Packages define Properties, Events, Signals, and Statistics. Packages may also define new error codes according to the guidelines given in section 13.2. This is a matter of documentary convenience: the package documentation is submitted to IANA in support of the error code registration. If a package is modified, it is unnecessary to provide IANA with a new document reference in support of the error code unless the description of the error code itself is modified. Names of all such defined constructs shall consist of the PackageID (which uniquely identifies the package) and the ID of the item (which uniquely identifies the item in that package). In the text encoding the two shall be separated by a forward slash ("/") character. Example: togen/playtone is the text encoding to refer to the play tone signal in the tone generation package. A Package will contain the following sections: 12.1.1 Package Overall description of the package, specifying: . Package Name: only descriptive, . PackageID: Is an identifier . Description: . Version: A new version of a package can only add additional Properties, Events, Signals, Statistics and new possible values for an existing parameter described in the original package. No deletions or modifications shall be allowed. A version is an integer in the range from 1 to 99. . Extends (Optional): A package may extend an existing package. The version of the original package must be specified. When a package extends another package it shall only add additional Properties, Events, Signals, Statistics and new possible values for an Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 71]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 existing parameter described in the original package. An extended package shall not redefine or overload a name defined in the original package. Hence, if package B version 1 extends package A version 1, version 2 of B will not be able to extend the A version 2 if A version 2 defines a name already in B version 1. 12.1.2 Properties Properties defined by the package, specifying: . Property Name: only descriptive. . PropertyID: Is an identifier . Description: . Type: One of: String: UTF-8 string Integer: 4 byte signed integer Double: 8 byte signed integer Character: Unicode UTF-8 encoding of a single letter. Could be more than one octet. Enumeration: One of a list of possible unique values (See 12.3) Sub-list: A list of several values from a list Boolean . Possible Values: . Defined in: Which H.248 descriptor the property is defined in. LocalControl is for stream dependent properties. TerminationState is for stream independent properties. . Characteristics: Read / Write or both, and (optionally), global: Indicates whether a property is read-only, or read-write, and if it is global. If Global is omitted, the property is not global. If a property is declared as global, the value of the property is shared by all terminations realizing the package. 12.1.3 Events Events defined by the package, specifying: . Event name: only descriptive. . EventID: Is an identifier . Description: . EventsDescriptor Parameters: Parameters used by the MGC to configure the event, and found in the EventsDescriptor. See section 12.2. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 72]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 . ObservedEventsDescriptor Parameters: Parameters returned to the MGC in Notify requests and in replies to command requests from the MGC that audit ObservedEventsDescriptor, and found in the ObservedEventsDescriptor. See section 12.2. 12.1.4 Signals . Signals defined by the package, specifying: . Signal Name: only descriptive. . SignalID: Is an identifier. SignalID is used in a SignalsDescriptor . Description . SignalType: One of: - OO (On/Off) - TO (TimeOut) - BR (Brief) Note - SignalType may be defined such that it is dependent on the value of one or more parameters. Signals that would be played with SignalType BR should have a default duration. The package has to define the default duration and signalType. . Duration: in hundredths of seconds . Additional Parameters: See section 12.2 12.1.5 Statistics Statistics defined by the package, specifying: . Statistic name: only descriptive. . StatisticID: Is an identifier. StatisticID is used in a StatisticsDescriptor. . Description . Units: unit of measure, e.g. milliseconds, packets. 12.1.6 Procedures Additional guidance on the use of the package. 12.2 Guidelines to defining Properties, Statistics and Parameters to Events and Signals. . Parameter Name: only descriptive . ParameterID: Is an identifier . Type: One of: String: UTF-8 octet string Integer: 4 octet signed integer Double: 8 octet signed integer Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 73]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Character: Unicode UTF-8 encoding of a single letter. Could be more than one octet. Enumeration: One of a list of possible unique values (See 12.3) Sub-list: A list of several values from a list Boolean . Possible values: . Description: 12.3 Lists Possible values for parameters include enumerations. Enumerations may be defined in a list. It is recommended that the list be IANA registered so that packages that extend the list can be defined without concern for conflicting names. 12.4 Identifiers Identifiers in text encoding shall be strings of up to 64 characters, containing no spaces, starting with an alphanumeric character and consisting of alphanumeric characters and / or digits, and possibly including the special character underscore ("_"). Identifiers in binary encoding are 2 octets long. Both text and binary values shall be specified for each identifier, including identifiers used as values in enumerated types. 12.5 Package Registration A package can be registered with IANA for interoperability reasons. See section 13 for IANA considerations. 13. IANA CONSIDERATIONS 13.1 Packages The following considerations SHALL be met to register a package with IANA: 1. A unique string name, unique serial number and version number is registered for each package. The string name is used with text encoding. The serial number shall be used with binary encoding. Serial Numbers 60000-64565 are reserved for private use. Serial number 0 is reserved. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 74]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 2. A contact name, email and postal addresses for that contact shall be specified. The contact information shall be updated by the defining organization as necessary. 3. A reference to a document that describes the package, which should be public: The document shall specify the version of the Package that it describes. If the document is public, it should be located on a public web server and should have a stable URL. The site should provide a mechanism to provide comments and appropriate responses should be returned. 4. Packages registered by other than recognized standards bodies shall have a minimum package name length of 8 characters. 5. All other package names are first come-first served if all other conditions are met 13.2 Error Codes The following considerations SHALL be met to register an error code with IANA: 1. An error number and a one line (80 character maximum) string is registered for each error. 2. A complete description of the conditions under which the error is detected shall be included in a publicly available document. The description shall be sufficiently clear to differentiate the error from all other existing error codes. 3. The document should be available on a public web server and should have a stable URL. 4. Error numbers registered by recognized standards bodies shall have 3 or 4 character error numbers. 5. Error numbers registered by all other organizations or individuals shall have 4 character error numbers. 6. An error number shall not be redefined, nor modified except by the organization or individual that originally defined it, or their successors or assigns. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 75]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 13.3 ServiceChange Reasons The following considerations SHALL be met to register service change reason with IANA: 1. A one phrase, 80-character maximum, unique reason code is registered for each reason. 2. A complete description of the conditions under which the reason is used is detected shall be included in a publicly available document. The description shall be sufficiently clear to differentiate the reason from all other existing reasons. 3. The document should be available on a public web server and should have a stable URL. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 76]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ANNEX A: BINARY ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE) This Annex specifies the syntax of messages using the notation defined in ASN.1 [ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (1997): Information Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) - Specification of basic notation.]. Messages shall be encoded for transmission by applying the basic encoding rules specified in [ITU-T Recommendation X.690(1994) Information Technology - ASN.1 Encoding Rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER)]. A.1 Coding of wildcards The use of wildcards ALL and CHOOSE is allowed in the protocol. This allows a MGC to partially specify Termination IDs and let the MG choose from the values that conform to the partial specification. Termination IDs may encode a hierarchy of names. This hierarchy is provisioned. For instance, a TerminationID may consist of a trunk group, a trunk within the group and a circuit. Wildcarding must be possible at all levels. The following paragraphs explain how this is achieved. The ASN.1 description uses octet strings of up to 8 octets in length for Termination IDs. This means that Termination IDs consist of at most 64 bits. A fully specified Termination ID may be preceded by a sequence of wildcarding fields. A wildcarding field is octet in length. Bit 7 (the most significant bit) of this octet specifies what type of wildcarding is invoked: if the bit value equals 1, then the ALL wildcard is used; if the bit value if 0, then the CHOOSE wildcard is used. Bit 6 of the wildcarding field specifies whether the wildcarding pertains to one level in the hierarchical naming scheme (bit value 0) or to the level of the hierarchy specified in the wildcarding field plus all lower levels (bit value 1). Bits 0 through 5 of the wildcarding field specify the bit position in the Termination ID at which the starts. We illustrate this scheme with some examples. In these examples, the most significant bit in a string of bits appears on the left hand side. Assume that Termination IDs are three octets long and that each octet represents a level in a hierarchical naming scheme. A valid Termination ID is 00000001 00011110 01010101. Addressing ALL names with prefix 00000001 00011110 is done as follows: wildcarding field: 10000111 Termination ID: 00000001 00011110 xxxxxxxx. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 77]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 The values of the bits labeled "x" is irrelevant and shall be ignored by the receiver. Indicating to the receiver that is must choose a name with 00011110 as the second octet is done as follows: wildcarding fields: 00010111 followed by 00000111 Termination ID: xxxxxxxx 00011110 xxxxxxxx. The first wildcard field indicates a CHOOSE wildcard for the level in the naming hierarchy starting at bit 23, the highest level in our assumed naming scheme. The second wildcard field indicates a CHOOSE wildcard for the level in the naming hierarchy starting at bit 7, the lowest level in our assumed naming scheme. Finally, a CHOOSE-wildcarded name with the highest level of the name equal to 00000001 is specified as follows: wildcard field: 01001111 Termination ID: 0000001 xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx . Bit value 1 at bit position 6 of the first octet of the wildcard field indicates that the wildcarding pertains to the specified level in the naming hierarchy and all lower levels. Context IDs may also be wildcarded. In the case of Context IDs, however, specifying partial names is not allowed. Context ID 0x0 SHALL be used to indicate the NULL Context, Context ID 0xFFFFFFFE SHALL be used to indicate a CHOOSE wildcard, and Context ID 0xFFFFFFFF SHALL be used to indicate an ALL wildcard. TerminationID 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF SHALL be used to indicate the ROOT Termination. A.2 ASN.1 syntax specification This section contains the ASN.1 specification of the H.248 protocol syntax. NOTE - In case a transport mechanism is used that employs application level framing, the definition of Transaction below changes. Refer to the annex defining the transport mechanism for the definition that applies in that case. NOTE - The ASN.1 specification below contains a clause defining TerminationIDList as a sequence of TerminationIDs. The length of this sequence SHALL be one. The SEQUENCE OF construct is present only to allow future extensions. MEDIA-GATEWAY-CONTROL DEFINITIONS AUTOMATIC TAGS::= BEGIN Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 78]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 MegacoMessage ::= SEQUENCE { authHeader AuthenticationHeader OPTIONAL, mess Message } AuthenticationHeader ::= SEQUENCE { secParmIndex SecurityParmIndex, seqNum SequenceNum, ad AuthData } SecurityParmIndex ::= OCTET STRING(SIZE(4)) SequenceNum ::= OCTET STRING(SIZE(4)) AuthData ::= OCTET STRING (SIZE (16..32)) Message ::= SEQUENCE { version INTEGER(0..99), -- The version of the protocol defined here is equal to 1. mId MId, -- Name/address of message originator messageBody CHOICE { messageError ErrorDescriptor, transactions SEQUENCE OF Transaction }, ... } MId ::= CHOICE { ip4Address IP4Address, ip6Address IP6Address, domainName DomainName, deviceName PathName, mtpAddress OCTET STRING(SIZE(2)), -- Addressing structure of mtpAddress: -- 15 0 -- | PC | NI | -- 14 bits 2 bits ... } DomainName ::= SEQUENCE { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 79]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 name IA5String, -- The name starts with an alphanumeric digit followed by a -- sequence of alphanumeric digits, hyphens and dots. No two -- dots shall occur consecutively. portNumber INTEGER(0..65535) OPTIONAL } IP4Address ::= SEQUENCE { address OCTET STRING (SIZE(4)), portNumber INTEGER(0..65535) OPTIONAL } IP6Address ::= SEQUENCE { address OCTET STRING (SIZE(16)), portNumber INTEGER(0..65535) OPTIONAL } PathName ::= IA5String(SIZE (1..64)) -- See section A.3 Transaction ::= CHOICE { transactionRequest TransactionRequest, transactionPending TransactionPending, transactionReply TransactionReply, transactionResponseAck TransactionResponseAck, -- use of response acks is dependent on underlying transport ... } TransactionId ::= INTEGER(0..4294967295) -- 32 bit unsigned integer TransactionRequest ::= SEQUENCE { transactionId TransactionId, actions SEQUENCE OF ActionRequest, ... } TransactionPending ::= SEQUENCE { transactionId TransactionId, ... } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 80]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 TransactionReply ::= SEQUENCE { transactionId TransactionId, transactionResult CHOICE { transactionError ErrorDescriptor, actionReplies SEQUENCE OF ActionReply }, ... } TransactionResponseAck ::= SEQUENCE { firstAck TransactionId, lastAck TransactionId OPTIONAL } ErrorDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { errorCode ErrorCode, errorText ErrorText OPTIONAL } ErrorCode ::= INTEGER(0..65535) -- See section 13 for IANA considerations w.r.t. error codes ErrorText ::= IA5String ContextID ::= INTEGER(0..4294967295) -- Context NULL Value: 0 -- Context CHOOSE Value: 429467294 (0xFFFFFFFE) -- Context ALL Value: 4294967295 (0xFFFFFFFF) ActionRequest ::= SEQUENCE { contextId ContextID, contextRequest ContextRequest OPTIONAL, contextAttrAuditReq ContextAttrAuditRequest OPTIONAL, commandRequests SEQUENCE OF CommandRequest } ActionReply ::= SEQUENCE { contextId ContextID, errorDescriptor ErrorDescriptor OPTIONAL, contextReply ContextRequest OPTIONAL, Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 81]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 commandReply SEQUENCE OF CommandReply } ContextRequest ::= SEQUENCE { priority INTEGER(0..15) OPTIONAL, emergency BOOLEAN OPTIONAL, topologyReq SEQUENCE OF TopologyRequest OPTIONAL, ... } ContextAttrAuditRequest ::= SEQUENCE { topology NULL OPTIONAL, emergency NULL OPTIONAL, priority NULL OPTIONAL, ... } CommandRequest ::= SEQUENCE { command Command, optional NULL OPTIONAL, wildcardReturn NULL OPTIONAL, ... } Command ::= CHOICE { addReq AmmRequest, moveReq AmmRequest, modReq AmmRequest, -- Add, Move, Modify requests have the same parameters subtractReq SubtractRequest, auditCapRequest AuditRequest, auditValueRequest AuditRequest, notifyReq NotifyRequest, serviceChangeReq ServiceChangeRequest, ... } CommandReply ::= CHOICE { addReply AmmsReply, moveReply AmmsReply, modReply AmmsReply, subtractReply AmmsReply, -- Add, Move, Modify, Subtract replies have the same parameters Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 82]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 auditCapReply AuditReply, auditValueReply AuditReply, notifyReply NotifyReply, serviceChangeReply ServiceChangeReply, ... } TopologyRequest ::= SEQUENCE { terminationFrom TerminationID, terminationTo TerminationID, topologyDirection ENUMERATED { bothway(0), isolate(1), oneway(2) } } AmmRequest ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, mediaDescriptor MediaDescriptor OPTIONAL, modemDescriptor ModemDescriptor OPTIONAL, muxDescriptor MuxDescriptor OPTIONAL, eventsDescriptor EventsDescriptor OPTIONAL, eventBufferDescriptor EventBufferDescriptor OPTIONAL, signalsDescriptor SignalsDescriptor OPTIONAL, digitMapDescriptor DigitMapDescriptor OPTIONAL, auditDescriptor AuditDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } AmmsReply ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, terminationAudit TerminationAudit OPTIONAL } SubtractRequest ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, auditDescriptor AuditDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } AuditRequest ::= SEQUENCE { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 83]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 terminationID TerminationID, auditDescriptor AuditDescriptor, ... } AuditReply ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationID, auditResult AuditResult } AuditResult ::= CHOICE { contextAuditResult TerminationIDList, terminationAuditResult TerminationAudit } AuditDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { auditToken BIT STRING { muxToken(0), modemToken(1), mediaToken(2), eventsToken(3), signalsToken(4), digitMapToken(5), statsToken(6), observedEventsToken(7), packagesToken(8), eventBufferToken(9) } OPTIONAL, ... } TerminationAudit ::= SEQUENCE OF AuditReturnParameter AuditReturnParameter ::= CHOICE { errorDescriptor ErrorDescriptor, mediaDescriptor MediaDescriptor, modemDescriptor ModemDescriptor, muxDescriptor MuxDescriptor, eventsDescriptor EventsDescriptor, eventBufferDescriptor EventBufferDescriptor, signalsDescriptor SignalsDescriptor, digitMapDescriptor DigitMapDescriptor, observedEventsDescriptor ObservedEventsDescriptor, statisticsDescriptor StatisticsDescriptor, packagesDescriptor PackagesDescriptor, ... } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 84]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 NotifyRequest ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, observedEventsDescriptor ObservedEventsDescriptor, errorDescriptor ErrorDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } NotifyReply ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList OPTIONAL, errorDescriptor ErrorDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } ObservedEventsDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { requestId RequestID, observedEventLst SEQUENCE OF ObservedEvent } ObservedEvent ::= SEQUENCE { eventName EventName, streamID StreamID OPTIONAL, eventParList SEQUENCE OF EventParameter, timeNotation TimeNotation OPTIONAL } EventName ::= PkgdName EventParameter ::= SEQUENCE { eventParameterName Name, value Value } ServiceChangeRequest ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, serviceChangeParms ServiceChangeParm, ... } ServiceChangeReply ::= SEQUENCE { terminationID TerminationIDList, serviceChangeResult ServiceChangeResult, Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 85]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ... } -- For ServiceChangeResult, no parameters are mandatory. Hence the -- distinction between ServiceChangeParm and ServiceChangeResParm. ServiceChangeResult ::= CHOICE { errorDescriptor ErrorDescriptor, serviceChangeResParms ServiceChangeResParm } WildcardField ::= OCTET STRING(SIZE(1)) TerminationID ::= SEQUENCE { wildcard SEQUENCE OF WildcardField, id OCTET STRING(SIZE(1..8)) } -- See Section A.1 for explanation of wildcarding mechanism. -- Termination ID 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF indicates the ROOT Termination. TerminationIDList ::= SEQUENCE OF TerminationID MediaDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { termStateDescr TerminationStateDescriptor OPTIONAL, streams CHOICE { oneStream StreamParms, multiStream SEQUENCE OF StreamDescriptor }, ... } StreamDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { streamID StreamID, streamParms StreamParms } StreamParms ::= SEQUENCE { localControlDescriptor LocalControlDescriptor OPTIONAL, localDescriptor LocalRemoteDescriptor OPTIONAL, remoteDescriptor LocalRemoteDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 86]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 LocalControlDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { streamMode StreamMode OPTIONAL, reserveValue BOOLEAN, reserveGroup BOOLEAN, propertyParms SEQUENCE OF PropertyParm, ... } StreamMode ::= ENUMERATED { sendOnly(0), recvOnly(1), sendRecv(2), inactive(3), loopBack(4), ... } -- In PropertyParm, value is a SEQUENCE OF octet string. When sent -- by an MGC the interpretation is as follows: -- empty sequence means CHOOSE -- one element sequence specifies value -- longer sequence means "choose one of the values" -- The relation field may only be selected if the value sequence -- has length 1. It indicates that the MG has to choose a value -- for the property. E.g., x > 3 (using the greaterThan -- value for relation) instructs the MG to choose any value larger -- than 3 for property x. -- The range field may only be selected if the value sequence -- has length 2. It indicates that the MG has to choose a value -- in the range between the first octet in the value sequence and -- the trailing octet in the value sequence, including the -- boundary values. -- When sent by the MG, only responses to an AuditCapability request -- may contain multiple values, a range, or a relation field. PropertyParm ::= SEQUENCE { name PkgdName, value SEQUENCE OF OCTET STRING, extraInfo CHOICE { relation Relation, range BOOLEAN } OPTIONAL } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 87]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Name ::= OCTET STRING(SIZE(2)) PkgdName ::= OCTET STRING(SIZE(4)) -- represents Package Name (2 octets) plus Property Name (2 octets) -- To wildcard a package use 0xFFFF for first two octets, choose -- is not allowed. To reference native property tag specified in -- Annex C, use 0x0000 as first two octets. -- Wildcarding of Package Name is permitted only if Property Name is -- also wildcarded. Relation ::= ENUMERATED { greaterThan(0), smallerThan(1), unequalTo(2), ... } LocalRemoteDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { propGrps SEQUENCE OF PropertyGroup, ... } PropertyGroup ::= SEQUENCE OF PropertyParm TerminationStateDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { propertyParms SEQUENCE OF PropertyParm, eventBufferControl EventBufferControl OPTIONAL, serviceState ServiceState OPTIONAL, ... } EventBufferControl ::= ENUMERATED { Off(0), LockStep(1), ... } ServiceState ::= ENUMERATED { test(0), outOfSvc(1), inSvc(2), ... } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 88]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 MuxDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { muxType MuxType, termList SEQUENCE OF TerminationID, nonStandardData NonStandardData OPTIONAL, ... } MuxType ::= ENUMERATED { h221(0), h223(1), h226(2), v76(3), ... } StreamID ::= INTEGER(0..65535) -- 16 bit unsigned integer EventsDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { requestID RequestID, eventList SEQUENCE OF RequestedEvent } RequestedEvent ::= SEQUENCE { pkgdName PkgdName, streamID StreamID OPTIONAL, eventAction RequestedActions OPTIONAL, evParList SEQUENCE OF EventParameter } RequestedActions ::= SEQUENCE { keepActive BOOLEAN, eventDM EventDM OPTIONAL, secondEvent SecondEventsDescriptor OPTIONAL, signalsDescriptor SignalsDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } EventDM ::= CHOICE { digitMapName DigitMapName, digitMapValue DigitMapValue } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 89]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 SecondEventsDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { requestID RequestID, eventList SEQUENCE OF SecondRequestedEvent } SecondRequestedEvent ::= SEQUENCE { pkgdName PkgdName, streamID StreamID OPTIONAL, eventAction SecondRequestedActions OPTIONAL, evParList SEQUENCE OF EventParameter } SecondRequestedActions ::= SEQUENCE { keepActive BOOLEAN, eventDM EventDM OPTIONAL, signalsDescriptor SignalsDescriptor OPTIONAL, ... } EventBufferDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE OF ObservedEvent SignalsDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE OF SignalRequest SignalRequest ::=CHOICE { signal Signal, seqSigList SeqSigList } SeqSigList ::= SEQUENCE { id INTEGER(0..65535), signalList SEQUENCE OF Signal } Signal ::= SEQUENCE { signalName SignalName, streamID StreamID OPTIONAL, sigType SignalType OPTIONAL, duration INTEGER (0..65535) OPTIONAL, notifyCompletion BOOLEAN OPTIONAL, keepActive BOOLEAN OPTIONAL, sigParList SEQUENCE OF SigParameter } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 90]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 SignalType ::= ENUMERATED { brief(0), onOff(1), timeOut(2), ... } SignalName ::= PkgdName SigParameter ::= SEQUENCE { sigParameterName Name, value Value } RequestID ::= INTEGER(0..4294967295) -- 32 bit unsigned integer ModemDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { mtl SEQUENCE OF ModemType, mpl SEQUENCE OF PropertyParm, nonStandardData NonStandardData OPTIONAL } ModemType ::= ENUMERATED { v18(0), v22(1), v22bis(2), v32(3), v32bis(4), v34(5), v90(6), v91(7), synchISDN(8), ... } DigitMapDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE { digitMapName DigitMapName, digitMapValue DigitMapValue } DigitMapName ::= Name DigitMapValue ::= SEQUENCE Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 91]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 { startTimer INTEGER(0..99) OPTIONAL, shortTimer INTEGER(0..99) OPTIONAL, longTimer INTEGER(0..99) OPTIONAL, digitMapBody IA5String -- See Section A.3 for explanation of digit map syntax } ServiceChangeParm ::= SEQUENCE { serviceChangeMethod ServiceChangeMethod, serviceChangeAddress ServiceChangeAddress OPTIONAL, serviceChangeVersion INTEGER(0..99) OPTIONAL, serviceChangeProfile ServiceChangeProfile OPTIONAL, serviceChangeReason Value, serviceChangeDelay INTEGER(0..4294967295) OPTIONAL, -- 32 bit unsigned integer serviceChangeMgcId MId OPTIONAL, timeStamp TimeNotation OPTIONAL, nonStandardData NonStandardData OPTIONAL, } ServiceChangeAddress ::= CHOICE { portNumber INTEGER(0..65535), -- TCP/UDP port number ip4Address IP4Address, ip6Address IP6Address, domainName DomainName, deviceName PathName, mtpAddress OCTET STRING(SIZE(2)), ... } ServiceChangeResParm ::= SEQUENCE { serviceChangeMgcId MId OPTIONAL, serviceChangeAddress ServiceChangeAddress OPTIONAL, serviceChangeVersion INTEGER(0..99) OPTIONAL, serviceChangeProfile ServiceChangeProfile OPTIONAL } ServiceChangeMethod ::= ENUMERATED { failover(0), forced(1), graceful(2), restart(3), disconnected(4), Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 92]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 handOff(5), ... } ServiceChangeProfile ::= SEQUENCE { profileName Name, version INTEGER(0..99) } PackagesDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE OF PackagesItem PackagesItem ::= SEQUENCE { packageName Name, packageVersion INTEGER(0..99) } StatisticsDescriptor ::= SEQUENCE OF StatisticsParameter StatisticsParameter ::= SEQUENCE { statName PkgdName, statValue Value } NonStandardData ::= SEQUENCE { nonStandardIdentifier NonStandardIdentifier, data OCTET STRING } NonStandardIdentifier ::= CHOICE { object OBJECT IDENTIFIER, h221NonStandard H221NonStandard, experimental IA5STRING(SIZE(8)), -- first two characters should be "X-" or "X+" ... } H221NonStandard ::= SEQUENCE { t35CountryCode INTEGER(0..255), -- country, as per T.35 t35Extension INTEGER(0..255), -- assigned nationally manufacturerCode INTEGER(0..65535), -- assigned nationally ... } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 93]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 TimeNotation ::= SEQUENCE { date IA5String(SIZE(8)), -- yyyymmdd format time IA5String(SIZE(8)) -- hhmmssss format } Value ::= OCTET STRING END A.3 Digit maps and path names From a syntactic viewpoint, digit maps are strings with syntactic restrictions imposed upon them. The syntax of valid digit maps is specified in ABNF [RFC 2234]. The syntax for digit maps presented in this section is for illustrative purposes only. The definition of digitMap in Annex B takes precedence in the case of differences between the two. digitMap = (digitString / LWSP "(" LWSP digitStringList LWSP ")" LWSP) digitStringList = digitString *( LWSP "/" LWSP digitString ) digitString = 1*(digitStringElement) digitStringElement = digitPosition [DOT] digitPosition = digitMapLetter / digitMapRange digitMapRange = ("x" / LWSP "[" LWSP digitLetter LWSP "]" LWSP) digitLetter = *((DIGIT "-" DIGIT) /digitMapLetter) digitMapLetter = DIGIT ;digits 0-9 / %x41-4B / %x61-6B ;a-k and A-K / "L" / "S" ;Inter-event timers ;(long, short) / "Z" ;Long duration event LWSP = *(WSP / COMMENT / EOL) WSP = SP / HTAB COMMENT = ";" *(SafeChar / RestChar / WSP) EOL EOL = (CR [LF]) / LF SP = %x20 HTAB = %x09 CR = %x0D LF = %x0A SafeChar = DIGIT / ALPHA / "+" / "-" / "&" / "!" / "_" / "/" / "'" / "?" / "@" / "^" / "`" / "~" / "*" / "$" / "\" / "(" / ")" / "%" / "." RestChar = ";" / "[" / "]" / "{" / "}" / ":" / "," / "#" / "<" / ">" / "=" / %x22 DIGIT = %x30-39 ; digits 0 through 9 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 94]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ALPHA = %x41-5A / %x61-7A ; A-Z, a-z A path name is also a string with syntactic restrictions imposed upon it. The ABNF production defining it is copied from Annex B. PathName = NAME *(["/"] ["*"] ["@"] (ALPHA / DIGIT)) ["*"] NAME = ALPHA *63(ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" ) ANNEX B TEXT ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE) B.1 Coding of wildcards In a text encoding of the protocol, while TerminationIDs are arbitrary, by judicious choice of names, the wildcard character, "*" may be made more useful. When the wildcard character is encountered, it will "match" all TerminationIDs having the same previous and following characters (if appropriate). For example, if there were TerminationIDs of R13/3/1, R13/3/2 and R13/3/3, the TerminationID R13/3/* would match all of them. There are some circumstances where ALL Terminations must be referred to. The TerminationID "*" suffices, and is referred to as ALL. The CHOOSE TerminationID "$" may be used to signal to the MG that it has to create an ephemeral Termination or select an idle physical Termination. B.2 ABNF specification The protocol syntax is presented in ABNF according to RFC2234. megacoMessage = LWSP [authenticationHeader SEP ] message authenticationHeader = AuthToken EQUAL SecurityParmIndex COLON SequenceNum COLON AuthData SecurityParmIndex = "0x" 8(HEXDIG) SequenceNum = "0x" 8(HEXDIG) AuthData = "0x" 32*64(HEXDIG) message = MegacopToken SLASH Version SEP mId SEP messageBody ; The version of the protocol defined here is equal to 1. messageBody = ( errorDescriptor / transactionList ) transactionList = 1*( transactionRequest / transactionReply / transactionPending / transactionResponseAck ) ;Use of response acks is dependent on underlying transport transactionPending = PendingToken EQUAL TransactionID LBRKT RBRKT Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 95]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 transactionResponseAck = ResponseAckToken LBRKT transactionAck *(COMMA transactionAck) RBRKT transactionAck = transactionID / (transactionID "-" transactionID) transactionRequest = TransToken EQUAL TransactionID LBRKT actionRequest *(COMMA actionRequest) RBRKT actionRequest = CtxToken EQUAL ContextID LBRKT (( contextRequest [COMMA commandRequestList]) / commandRequestList) RBRKT contextRequest = ((contextProperties [COMMA contextAudit]) / contextAudit) contextProperties = contextProperty *(COMMA contextProperty) ; at-most-once contextProperty = (topologyDescriptor / priority / EmergencyToken) contextAudit = ContextAuditToken LBRKT contextAuditProperties *(COMMA contextAuditProperties) RBRKT ; at-most-once contextAuditProperties = ( TopologyToken / EmergencyToken / PriorityToken ) commandRequestList= ["O-"] commandRequest *(COMMA ["O-"] commandRequest) commandRequest = ( ammRequest / subtractRequest / auditRequest / notifyRequest / serviceChangeRequest) transactionReply = ReplyToken EQUAL TransactionID LBRKT ( errorDescriptor / actionReplyList ) RBRKT actionReplyList = actionReply *(COMMA actionReply ) actionReply = CtxToken EQUAL ContextID LBRKT ( errorDescriptor / commandReply ) RBRKT commandReply = (( contextProperties [COMMA commandReplyList] ) / commandReplyList ) commandReplyList = commandReplys *(COMMA commandReplys ) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 96]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 commandReplys = (serviceChangeReply / auditReply / ammsReply / notifyReply ) ;Add Move and Modify have the same request parameters ammRequest = (AddToken / MoveToken / ModifyToken ) EQUAL TerminationID [LBRKT ammParameter *(COMMA ammParameter) RBRKT] ;at-most-once ammParameter = (mediaDescriptor / modemDescriptor / muxDescriptor / eventsDescriptor / signalsDescriptor / digitMapDescriptor / eventBufferDescriptor / auditDescriptor) ammsReply = (AddToken / MoveToken / ModifyToken / SubtractToken ) EQUAL TerminationID [ LBRKT terminationAudit RBRKT ] subtractRequest = ["W-"] SubtractToken EQUAL TerminationID [ LBRKT auditDescriptor RBRKT] auditRequest = ["W-"] (AuditValueToken / AuditCapToken ) EQUAL TerminationID LBRKT auditDescriptor RBRKT auditReply = (AuditValueToken / AuditCapToken ) ( contextTerminationAudit / auditOther) auditOther = EQUAL TerminationID LBRKT terminationAudit RBRKT terminationAudit = auditReturnParameter *(COMMA auditReturnParameter) contextTerminationAudit = EQUAL CtxToken ( terminationIDList / LBRKT errorDescriptor RBRKT ) ;at-most-once except errorDescriptor auditReturnParameter = (mediaDescriptor / modemDescriptor / muxDescriptor / eventsDescriptor / signalsDescriptor / digitMapDescriptor / observedEventsDescriptor / eventBufferDescriptor / statisticsDescriptor / packagesDescriptor / errorDescriptor ) auditDescriptor = AuditToken LBRKT [ auditItem *(COMMA auditItem) ] RBRKT Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 97]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 notifyRequest = NotifyToken EQUAL TerminationID LBRKT ( observedEventsDescriptor [ COMMA errorDescriptor ] ) RBRKT notifyReply = NotifyToken EQUAL TerminationID [ LBRKT errorDescriptor RBRKT ] serviceChangeRequest = ServiceChangeToken EQUAL TerminationID LBRKT serviceChangeDescriptor RBRKT serviceChangeReply = ServiceChangeToken EQUAL TerminationID [LBRKT (errorDescriptor / serviceChangeReplyDescriptor) RBRKT] errorDescriptor = ErrorToken EQUAL ErrorCode LBRKT [quotedString] RBRKT ErrorCode = 1*4(DIGIT) ; could be extended TransactionID = UINT32 mId = (( domainAddress / domainName ) [":" portNumber]) / mtpAddress / deviceName ; ABNF allows two or more consecutive "." although it is meaningless ; in a domain name. domainName = "<" (ALPHA / DIGIT) *63(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / ".") ">" deviceName = pathNAME ContextID = (UINT32 / "*" / "-" / "$") domainAddress = "[" (IPv4address / IPv6address) "]" ;RFC2373 contains the definition of IP6Addresses. IPv6address = hexpart [ ":" IPv4address ] IPv4address = V4hex DOT V4hex DOT V4hex DOT V4hex V4hex = 1*3(DIGIT) ; "0".."225" ; this production, while occurring in RFC2373, is not referenced ; IPv6prefix = hexpart SLASH 1*2DIGIT hexpart = hexseq "::" [ hexseq ] / "::" [ hexseq ] / hexseq hexseq = hex4 *( ":" hex4) hex4 = 1*4HEXDIG portNumber = UINT16 ; An mtp address is two octets long mtpAddress = MTPToken LBRKT octetString RBRKT Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 98]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 terminationIDList = LBRKT TerminationID *(COMMA TerminationID) RBRKT ; Total length of pathNAME must not exceed 64 chars. pathNAME = ["*"] NAME *("/" / "*"/ ALPHA / DIGIT /"_" / "$" ) ["@" pathDomainName ] ; ABNF allows two or more consecutive "." although it is meaningless ; in a path domain name. pathDomainName = (ALPHA / DIGIT / "*" ) *63(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "*" / ".") TerminationID = "ROOT" / pathNAME / "$" / "*" mediaDescriptor = MediaToken LBRKT mediaParm *(COMMA mediaParm) RBRKT ; at-most-once per item ; and either streamParm or streamDescriptor but not both mediaParm = (streamParm / streamDescriptor / terminationStateDescriptor) ; at-most-once streamParm = ( localDescriptor / remoteDescriptor / localControlDescriptor ) streamDescriptor = StreamToken EQUAL StreamID LBRKT streamParm *(COMMA streamParm) RBRKT localControlDescriptor = LocalControlToken LBRKT localParm *(COMMA localParm) RBRKT ; at-most-once per item localParm = ( streamMode / propertyParm / reservedValueMode / reservedGroupMode ) reservedValueMode = ReservedValueToken EQUAL ( "ON" / "OFF" ) reservedGroupMode = ReservedGroupToken EQUAL ( "ON" / "OFF" ) streamMode = ModeToken EQUAL streamModes streamModes = (SendonlyToken / RecvonlyToken / SendrecvToken / InactiveToken / LoopbackToken ) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 99]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 propertyParm = pkgdName parmValue parmValue = (EQUAL alternativeValue/ INEQUAL VALUE) alternativeValue = ( VALUE / LSBRKT VALUE *(COMMA VALUE) RSBRKT / LSBRKT VALUE DOT DOT VALUE RSBRKT ) INEQUAL = LWSP (">" / "<" / "#" ) LWSP LSBRKT = LWSP "[" LWSP RSBRKT = LWSP "]" LWSP localDescriptor = LocalToken LBRKT octetString RBRKT remoteDescriptor = RemoteToken LBRKT octetString RBRKT eventBufferDescriptor= EventBufferToken LBRKT observedEvent *( COMMA observedEvent ) RBRKT eventBufferControl = BufferToken EQUAL ( "OFF" / LockStepToken ) terminationStateDescriptor = TerminationStateToken LBRKT terminationStateParm *( COMMA terminationStateParm ) RBRKT ; at-most-once per item terminationStateParm =(propertyParm / serviceStates / eventBufferControl ) serviceStates = ServiceStatesToken EQUAL ( TestToken / OutOfSvcToken / InSvcToken ) muxDescriptor = MuxToken EQUAL MuxType terminationIDList MuxType = ( H221Token / H223Token / H226Token / V76Token / extensionParameter ) StreamID = UINT16 pkgdName = (PackageName SLASH ItemID) ;specific item / (PackageName SLASH "*") ;all events in package / ("*" SLASH "*") ; all events supported by the MG PackageName = NAME ItemID = NAME eventsDescriptor = EventsToken EQUAL RequestID LBRKT requestedEvent *( COMMA requestedEvent ) RBRKT requestedEvent = pkgdName [ LBRKT eventParameter *( COMMA eventParameter ) RBRKT ] Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 100]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ; at-most-once each of KeepActiveToken , eventDM and eventStream ;at most one of either embedWithSig or embedNoSig but not both ;KeepActiveToken and embedWithSig must not both be present eventParameter = ( embedWithSig / embedNoSig / KeepActiveToken /eventDM / eventStream / eventOther ) embedWithSig = EmbedToken LBRKT signalsDescriptor [COMMA embedFirst ] RBRKT embedNoSig = EmbedToken LBRKT embedFirst RBRKT ; at-most-once of each embedFirst = EventsToken EQUAL RequestID LBRKT secondRequestedEvent *(COMMA secondRequestedEvent) RBRKT secondRequestedEvent = pkgdName [ LBRKT secondEventParameter *( COMMA secondEventParameter ) RBRKT ] ; at-most-once each of embedSig , KeepActiveToken, eventDM or ; eventStream ; KeepActiveToken and embedSig must not both be present secondEventParameter = ( EmbedSig / KeepActiveToken / eventDM / eventStream / eventOther ) embedSig = EmbedToken LBRKT signalsDescriptor RBRKT eventStream = StreamToken EQUAL StreamID eventOther = eventParameterName parmValue eventParameterName = NAME eventDM = DigitMapToken ((EQUAL digitMapName ) / (LBRKT digitMapValue RBRKT )) signalsDescriptor = SignalsToken LBRKT [ signalParm *(COMMA signalParm)] RBRKT signalParm = signalList / signalRequest signalRequest = signalName [ LBRKT sigParameter *(COMMA sigParameter) RBRKT ] signalList = SignalListToken EQUAL signalListId LBRKT signalListParm *(COMMA signalListParm) RBRKT signalListId = UINT16 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 101]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ;exactly once signalType, at most once duration and every signal ;parameter signalListParm = signalRequest signalName = pkgdName ;at-most-once sigStream, at-most-once sigSignalType, ;at-most-once sigDuration, every signalParameterName at most once sigParameter = sigStream / sigSignalType / sigDuration / sigOther / notifyCompletion / KeepActiveToken sigStream = StreamToken EQUAL StreamID sigOther = sigParameterName parmValue sigParameterName = NAME sigSignalType = SignalTypeToken EQUAL signalType signalType = (OnOffToken / TimeOutToken / BriefToken) sigDuration = DurationToken EQUAL UINT16 notifyCompletion = NotifyCompletionToken EQUAL ("ON" / "OFF") observedEventsDescriptor = ObservedEventsToken EQUAL RequestID LBRKT observedEvent *(COMMA observedEvent) RBRKT ;time per event, because it might be buffered observedEvent = [ TimeStamp LWSP COLON] LWSP pkgdName [ LBRKT observedEventParameter *(COMMA observedEventParameter) RBRKT ] ;at-most-once eventStream, every eventParameterName at most once observedEventParameter = eventStream / eventOther RequestID = UINT32 modemDescriptor = ModemToken (( EQUAL modemType) / (LSBRKT modemType *(COMMA modemType) RSBRKT)) [ LBRKT NAME parmValue *(COMMA NAME parmValue) RBRKT ] ; at-most-once modemType = (V32bisToken / V22bisToken / V18Token / V22Token / V32Token / V34Token / V90Token / V91Token / SynchISDNToken / extensionParameter) digitMapDescriptor = DigitMapToken EQUAL digitMapName ( LBRKT digitMapValue RBRKT ) digitMapName = NAME digitMapValue = ["T" COLON Timer COMMA] ["S" COLON Timer COMMA] ["L" COLON Timer COMMA] digitMap Timer = 1*2DIGIT digitMap = digitString / LWSP "(" LWSP digitStringList LWSP ")" LWSP) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 102]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 digitStringList = digitString *( LWSP "|" LWSP digitString ) digitString = 1*(digitStringElement) digitStringElement = digitPosition [DOT] digitPosition = digitMapLetter / digitMapRange digitMapRange = ("x" / LWSP "[" LWSP digitLetter LWSP "]" LWSP) digitLetter = *((DIGIT "-" DIGIT ) / digitMapLetter) digitMapLetter = DIGIT ;Basic event symbols / %x41-4B / %x61-6B ; a-k, A-K / "L" / "S" ;Inter-event timers (long, short) / Z" ;Long duration modifier ;at-most-once auditItem = ( MuxToken / ModemToken / MediaToken / SignalsToken / EventBufferToken / DigitMapToken / StatsToken / EventsToken / ObservedEventsToken / PackagesToken ) serviceChangeDescriptor = ServicesToken LBRKT serviceChangeParm *(COMMA serviceChangeParm) RBRKT serviceChangeParm = (serviceChangeMethod / serviceChangeReason / serviceChangeDelay / serviceChangeAddress / serviceChangeProfile / extension / TimeStamp / serviceChangeMgcId / serviceChangeVersion ) serviceChangeReplyDescriptor = ServicesToken LBRKT servChgReplyParm *(COMMA servChgReplyParm) RBRKT ;at-most-once. Version is REQUIRED on first ServiceChange response servChgReplyParm = (serviceChangeAddress / serviceChangeMgcId / serviceChangeProfile / serviceChangeVersion ) serviceChangeMethod = MethodToken EQUAL (FailoverToken / ForcedToken / GracefulToken / RestartToken / DisconnectedToken / HandOffToken / extensionParameter) serviceChangeReason = ReasonToken EQUAL VALUE serviceChangeDelay = DelayToken EQUAL UINT32 serviceChangeAddress = ServiceChangeAddressToken EQUAL VALUE serviceChangeMgcId = MgcIdToken EQUAL mId serviceChangeProfile = ProfileToken EQUAL NAME SLASH Version serviceChangeVersion = VersionToken EQUAL Version extension = extensionParameter parmValue packagesDescriptor = PackagesToken LBRKT packagesItem *(COMMA packagesItem) RBRKT Version = 1*2(DIGIT) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 103]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 packagesItem = NAME "-" UINT16 TimeStamp = Date "T" Time ; per ISO 8601:1988 ; Date = yyyymmdd Date = 8(DIGIT) ; Time = hhmmssss Time = 8(DIGIT) statisticsDescriptor = StatsToken LBRKT statisticsParameter *(COMMA statisticsParameter ) RBRKT ;at-most-once per item statisticsParameter = pkgdName EQUAL VALUE topologyDescriptor = TopologyToken LBRKT terminationA COMMA terminationB COMMA topologyDirection RBRKT terminationA = TerminationID terminationB = TerminationID topologyDirection = BothwayToken / IsolateToken / OnewayToken priority = PriorityToken EQUAL UINT16 extensionParameter = "X" ("-" / "+") 1*6(ALPHA / DIGIT) ; octetString is used to describe SDP defined in RFC2327. ; Caution should be taken if CRLF in RFC2327 is used. ; To be safe, use EOL in this ABNF. ; Whenever "}" appears in SDP, it is escaped by "\", e.g., "\}" octetString = *(nonEscapeChar) nonEscapeChar = ( "\}" / %x01-7C / %x7E-FF ) quotedString = DQUOTE 1*(SafeChar / RestChar/ WSP) DQUOTE UINT16 = 1*5(DIGIT) ; %x0-FFFF UINT32 = 1*10(DIGIT) ; %x0-FFFFFFFF NAME = ALPHA *63(ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" ) VALUE = quotedString / 1*(SafeChar) SafeChar = DIGIT / ALPHA / "+" / "-" / "&" / "!" / "_" / "/" / "'" / "?" / "@" / "^" / "`" / "~" / "*" / "$" / "\" / "(" / ")" / "%" / "|" / "." EQUAL = LWSP %x3D LWSP ; "=" COLON = %x3A ; ":" LBRKT = LWSP %x7B LWSP ; "{" RBRKT = LWSP %x7D LWSP ; "}" COMMA = LWSP %x2C LWSP ; "," DOT = %x2E ; "." SLASH = %x2F ; "/" Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 104]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ALPHA = %x41-5A / %x61-7A ; A-Z / a-z DIGIT = %x30-39 ; 0-9 DQUOTE = %x22 ; " (Double Quote) HEXDIG = ( DIGIT / "A" / "B" / "C" / "D" / "E" / "F" ) SP = %x20 ; space HTAB = %x09 ; horizontal tab CR = %x0D ; Carriage return LF = %x0A ; linefeed LWSP = *( WSP / COMMENT / EOL ) EOL = (CR [LF] / LF ) WSP = SP / HTAB ; white space SEP = ( WSP / EOL / COMMENT) LWSP COMMENT = ";" *(SafeChar/ RestChar / WSP / %x22) EOL RestChar = ";" / "[" / "]" / "{" / "}" / ":" / "," / "#" / "<" / ">" / "=" AddToken = ("Add" / "A") AuditToken = ("Audit" / "AT") AuditCapToken = ("AuditCapability" / "AC") AuditValueToken = ("AuditValue" / "AV") AuthToken = ("Authentication" / "AU") BothwayToken = ("Bothway" / "BW") BriefToken = ("Brief" / "BR") BufferToken = ("Buffer" / "BF") CtxToken = ("Context" / "C") ContextAuditToken = ("ContextAudit" / "CA") DigitMapToken = ("DigitMap" / "DM") DiscardToken = ("Discard" / "DS") DisconnectedToken = ("Disconnected" / "DC") DelayToken = ("Delay" / "DL") DurationToken = ("Duration" / "DR") EmbedToken = ("Embed" / "EB") EmergencyToken = ("Emergency" / "EM") ErrorToken = ("Error" / "ER") EventBufferToken = ("EventBuffer" / "EB") EventsToken = ("Events" / "E") FailoverToken = ("Failover" / "FL") ForcedToken = ("Forced" / "FO") GracefulToken = ("Graceful" / "GR") H221Token = ("H221" ) H223Token = ("H223" ) H226Token = ("H226" ) HandOffToken = ("HandOff" / "HO") InactiveToken = ("Inactive" / "IN") IsolateToken = ("Isolate" / "IS") InSvcToken = ("InService" / "IV") Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 105]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 KeepActiveToken = ("KeepActive" / "KA") LocalToken = ("Local" / "L") LocalControlToken = ("LocalControl" / "O") LockStepToken = ("LockStep" / "SP") LoopbackToken = ("Loopback" / "LB") MediaToken = ("Media" / "M") MegacopToken = ("MEGACO" / "!") MethodToken = ("Method" / "MT") MgcIdToken = ("MgcIdToTry" / "MG") ModeToken = ("Mode" / "MO") ModifyToken = ("Modify" / "MF") ModemToken = ("Modem" / "MD") MoveToken = ("Move" / "MV") MTPToken = ("MTP") MuxToken = ("Mux" / "MX") NotifyToken = ("Notify" / "N") NotifyCompletionToken = ("NotifyCompletion" / "NC") ObservedEventsToken = ("ObservedEvents" / "OE") OnewayToken = ("Oneway" / "OW") OnOffToken = ("OnOff" / "OO") OutOfSvcToken = ("OutOfService" / "OS") PackagesToken = ("Packages" / "PG") PendingToken = ("Pending" / "PN") PriorityToken = ("Priority" / "PR") ProfileToken = ("Profile" / "PF") ReasonToken = ("Reason" / "RE") RecvonlyToken = ("ReceiveOnly" / "RC") ReplyToken = ("Reply" / "P") RestartToken = ("Restart" / "RS") RemoteToken = ("Remote" / "R") ReservedGroupToken = ("ReservedGroup" / "RG") ReservedValueToken = ("ReservedValue" / "RV") SendonlyToken = ("SendOnly" / "SO") SendrecvToken = ("SendReceive" / "SR") ServicesToken = ("Services" / "SV") ServiceStatesToken = ("ServiceStates" / "SI") ServiceChangeToken = ("ServiceChange" / "SC") ServiceChangeAddressToken = ("ServiceChangeAddress" / "AD") SignalListToken = ("SignalList" / "SL") SignalsToken = ("Signals" / "SG") SignalTypeToken = ("SignalType" / "SY") StatsToken = ("Statistics" / "SA") StreamToken = ("Stream" / "ST") SubtractToken = ("Subtract" / "S") SynchISDNToken = ("SynchISDN" / "SN") TerminationStateToken = ("TerminationState" / "TS") TestToken = ("Test" / "TE") TimeOutToken = ("TimeOut" / "TO") Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 106]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 TopologyToken = ("Topology" / "TP") TransToken = ("Transaction" / "T") ResponseAckToken = ("TransactionResponseAck"/ "K") V18Token = ("V18") V22Token = ("V22") V22bisToken = ("V22b") V32Token = ("V32") V32bisToken = ("V32b") V34Token = ("V34") V76Token = ("V76") V90Token = ("V90") V91Token = ("V91") ANNEX C TAGS FOR MEDIA STREAM PROPERTIES (NORMATIVE) Parameters for Local descriptors and Remote descriptors are specified as tag-value pairs if binary encoding is used for the protocol. This annex contains the property names (PropertyID), the tags (Property Tag), type of the property (Type) and the values (Value).Values presented in the Value field when the field contains references shall be regarded as "information". The reference contains the normative values. If a value field does not contain a reference then the values in that field can be considered as "normative". Tags are given as hexadecimal numbers in this annex. When setting the value of a property, a MGC may underspecify the value according to one of the mechanisms specified in section 7.1.1. For type "enumeration" the value is represented by the value in brackets, e.g., Send(0), Receive(1). C.1 General Media Attributes PropertyID Property Type Value Tag Media 1001 Enumeration Audio(0), Video(1), Data(2), Transmission mode 1002 Enumeration Send(0), Receive(1), Send&Receive(2) Number of Channels 1003 Unsigned 0-255 Integer Sampling rate 1004 Unsigned 0-2^32 Integer Bitrate 1005 Integer (0..4294967295) Note - units of 100 bit/s Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 107]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ACodec 1006 Octet String Audio Codec Type: Reference: ITU-T Rec. Q.765 - Application transport mechanism. Non-ITU codecs are defined with the appropriate standards organisation under a defined Organizational Identifier. Samplepp 1007 Unsigned Maximum samples or Integer frames per packet: 0- 65535 Silencesupp 1008 BOOLEAN Silence Suppression: True/false Encrypttype 1009 Octet string Ref.: rec. H.245 Encryptkey 100A Octet string Encryption key SIZE(0..65535) Ref.: rec. H.235 Echocanc 100B Enumeration Echo Canceller: Off(0), G.165(1), G168(2) Gain 100C Unsigned Gain in db: 0-65535 Integer Jitterbuff 100D Unsigned Jitter buffer size in Integer ms: 0-65535 PropDelay 100E Unsigned Propagation Delay: Integer 0..65535 Maximum propagation delay in milliseconds for the bearer connection between two media gateways. The maximum delay will be dependent on the bearer technology. RTPpayload 100F integer Payload type in RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control Ref.: RFC 1890 C.2 Mux Properties PropertyID Property Type Value Tag H.221 2001 Octet Ref.: rec. H.245, string H222LogicalChannelParameters Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 108]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 H223 2002 Octet Ref.: rec. H.245, string H223LogicalChannelParameters V76 2003 Octet Ref.: rec. H.245, String V76LogicalChannelParameters H2250 2004 Octet Ref.: rec. H.245, String H2250LogicalChannelParameters C.3 General bearer properties PropertyID Property Type Value Tag Mediatx 3001 Enumeration Media Transport Type: TDM Circuit(0), ATM(1), FR(2), Ipv4(3), Ipv6(4), _ BIR 3002 4 OCTET Value depends on transport technology NSAP 3003 1-20 OCTETS See NSAP Reference: ITU X.213 Annex A C.4 General ATM properties PropertyID Property Type Value Tag AESA 4001 20 OCTETS ATM End System Address VPVC 4002 2 x 16 bit VPC/VCI integer SC 4003 4 bits Service Category Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) BCOB 4004 5 bit integer Broadband Bearer Class Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2961.2 (06/97) BBTC 4005 octet Broadband Transfer Capability Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2961 (10/95) ATC 4006 Enumeration I.371 ATM Traffic Capability Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 109]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371: DBR(0), SBR1(1), SBR2(2), SBR(3), ABT/IT(4), ABT/DT(5), ABR(6) STC 4007 2 bits Susceptibility to clipping Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00 Susceptible 01 Not-susceptible UPCC 4008 2 bits User Plane Connection configuration: Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00 Pt-to-pt, 01 Pt-to-mpt PCR0 4009 24 bit Peak Cell Rate (For integer CLP=0) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 SCR0 400A 24 bit Sustainable Cell Rate integer (For CLP=0) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 MBS0 400B 24 bit Maximum Burst Size (For integer CLP=0) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 PCR1 400C 24 bit Peak Cell Rate (For integer CLP=0+1) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 SCR2 400D 24 bit Sustainable Cell Rate integer (For CLP=0+1) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 MBS3 400E 24 bit Maximum Burst Size (For integer CLP=0+1) Reference: ITU Recommendation I.371 BEI 400F Boolean Best Effort Indicator TI 4010 Boolean Tagging FD 4011 Boolean Frame Discard Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 110]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 FCDV 4012 24 bit Forward P-P CDV integer BCDV 4013 24 bit Backward P-P CDV integer FCLR0 4014 8 bit integer Forward Cell Loss Ratio (For CLP=0) BCLR0 4015 8 bit integer Backward P-P Cell Loss Ratio (For CLP=0) FCLR1 4016 8 bit integer Forward Cell Loss Ratio BCLR1 4017 8 bit integer Backward P-P Cell Loss Ratio (For CLP=0+1) FCDV 4018 24 bit Forward Cell Delay integer Variation BCDV 4019 24 bit Backward Cell Delay integer Variation FACDV 401A 24 bit Forward Acceptable P-P-P integer CDV BACDV 401B 24 bit Backward Acceptable P-P integer CDV FCCDV 401C 24 bit Forward Cumulative P-P integer CDV BCCDV 401D 24 bit Backward Cumulative P-P integer CDV FCLR 401E 8 bit integer Acceptable Forward Cell Loss Ratio BCLR 401F 8 bit integer Acceptable Backward Cell Loss Ratio EETD 4020 16 bit End-to-end transit delay integer Mediatx (See 4021 AAL Type General Properties) Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 111]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 QosClass 4022 Integer 0-4 Qos Class Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) QoS Parameter Application: Qos Class0 QoS ApplicationBest Effort Parameter Unspecified 0 Unspecified Best EffortConstant Bit rate Specified circuit emulation 1 Specified Constant Bit rate circuit Specified emulationVariable bit rate video and audio 2 Specified Variable bit rate video and Specified audioConnection-oriented data 3 Specified Connection-oriented Specified dataConnectionless data 4 Specified Connectionless data AALtype 4023 1 OCTET AAL Type Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00000000 AAL for voice 00000001 AAL type 1 00000010 AAL type 2 00000011 AAL type 3/4 00000101 AAL type 5 00010000 user defined AAL C.5 Frame Relay PropertyID Property Type Value Tag DLCI 5001 Unsigned Integer Data link connection id CID 5002 Unsigned Integer sub-channel id. SID/Noiselevel 5003 Unsigned Integer silence insertion descriptor Primary Payload 5004 Unsigned Integer Primary Payload Type type Covers FAX and codecs Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 112]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 C.6 IP PropertyID Property Type Value Tag IPv4 6001 32 BITS Ipv4Address: Ipv4Address Reference: IETF RFC791 IPv6 6002 128 BITS IPv6 Address: Reference: IETF RFC2460 Port 6003 unsigned integer 0-65535 Porttype 6004 enumerated TCP(0), UDP(1), SCTP(2) C.7 ATM AAL2 PropertyID Property Type Value Tag AESA 7001 20 OCTETS AAL2 service endpoint address as defined in Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2630.1 ESEA NSEA BIR See C.3 4 OCTETS Served user generated reference as defined in Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2630.1 SUGR ALC 7002 12 OCTETS AAL2 link characteristics as defined in Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2630.1 max/average CPS-SDU bitrate, max/average CPS-SDU size SSCS 7003 I.366.2: Service audio (8 OCTETS) specific multirate (3 OCTETS) convergence or I.366.1: sublayer SAR-assured (14 OCTETS)/ information unassured (7 OCTETS) as defined in Reference: Q.2630.1 and used in I.366.1 and I.366.2 I.366.2: audio/multirate Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 113]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 I.366.1: SAR-assured/unassured SUT 7004 1..254 octets Served user transport parameter as defined in Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2630.1 TCI 7005 BOOLEAN Test connection indicator as defined in Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2630.1 Timer_CU 7006 32 bit integer Timer-CU: Milliseconds to hold partially filled cell before sending. MaxCPSSDU 7007 8 bit integer Maximum Common Part Sublayer Service Data Unit Ref.: rec. Q.2630.1 SCLP 7008 Boolean Set Cell Local PriorityLP bit: True if CLP bit is to be set EETR 7009 Boolean Timing Requirements Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) End to End Timing Required: In broadband bearer capability CID 700A 8 bits subchannel id, 0-255 Ref.: rec. I.363.2 (09/97) C.8 ATM AAL1 PropertyID Property Type Value Tag BIR See GIT (Generic Table Identifier Transport) 4 OCTETS C.3 Ref.: Recommendation Q.2941.1 (09/97) AAL1ST 8001 1 OCTET AAL1 Subtype: Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00000000 Null Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 114]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 00000001 voiceband signal transport on 64kbit/s 00000010 circuit transport 00000100 high-quality audio signal transport 00000101 video signal transport CBRR 8002 1 OCTET CBR Rate Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00000001 64 kbit/s 00000100 1544 kbit/s 00000101 6312 kbit/s 00000110 32064 kbit/s 00000111 44736 kbit/s 00001000 97728 kbit/s 00010000 2048 kbit/s 00010001 8448 kbit/s 00010010 34368 kbit/s 00010011 139264 kbit/s 01000000 n x 64 kbit/s 01000001 n * 8 kbit/s MULT See Multiplier, or n x Table 64k/8k/300 C.9 Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) SCRI 8003 1 OCTECT Source Clock Frequency Recovery Method Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00000000 NULL 00000001 SRTS 00000010 ACM ECM 8004 1 OCTECT Error Correction Method Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) 00000000 Null 00000001 FEC-LOSS 00000010 FEC-DELAY SDTB 8005 16 bit integer Structured Data Transfer Blocksize Reference: ITU Recommendation I.363.1 Block size of SDT CBR service PFCI 8006 8 bit integer Partially filled cells indentifier Reference: ITU Recommendation I.363.1 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 115]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 1-47 EETR See See Table C.7 See Table C.7 Table C.7 C.9 Bearer Capabilities PropertyID Property Type Value Tag TMR 9001 1 OCTET Transmission Medium Requirement (Q.763) Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.763(09/97) Bit 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 00000000 - speech 00000001 - spare 00000010 - 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00000011 - 3.1 kHz audio 00000100 - reserved for alternate speech (service 2)/64 kbit/s unrestricted (service 1) 00000101 - reserved for alternate 64 kbit/s unrestricted (service 1)/speech (service 2) 00000110 - 64 kbit/s preferred 00000111 - 2 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00001000 - 384 kbit/s unrestricted 00001001 - 1536 kbit/s unrestricted 00001010 - 1920 kbit/s unrestricted 00001011 through 00001111- spare 00010000 - 3 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010001 - 4 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010010 - 5 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010011 spare 00010100 - 7 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010101 - 8 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010110 - 9 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00010111 - 10 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011000 - 11 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011001 - 12 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011010 - 13 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011011 - 14 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011100 - 15 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011101 - 16 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011110 - 17 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00011111 - 18 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100000 - 19 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100001 - 20 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 116]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 00100010 - 21 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100011 - 22 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100100 - 23x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100101 - spare 00100110 - 25 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00100111 - 26 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00101000 - 27 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00101001 - 28 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00101010 - 29 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted 00101011 through 11111111 Spare TMRSR 9002 1 OCTET Transmission Medium Requirement Subrate 0 - unspecified 1 - 8kbit/s 2 - 16kbit/s 3 - 32kbit/s Contcheck 9003 BOOLEAN Continuity Check Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.763(09/97) 0 - Not required on this circuit 1 - Required on this circuit ITC 9004 5 BITS Information Transfer Capability Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.763(09/97) Bits 5 4 3 2 1 00000 - Speech 01000 -Unrestricted digital information 01001- Restricted digital information 10000 3.1 kHz audio 10001 - Unrestricted digital information with tones/announcements (Note 2) 11000 -Video All other values are reserved. TransMode 9005 2 BITS Transfer Mode Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 2 1 00 - Circuit mode 10 - Packet mode TransRate 9006 5 BITS Transfer Rate Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 5 4 3 2 1 00000 - This code shall be used for packet mode calls 10000 - 64 kbit/s Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 117]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 10001 - 2 x 64 kbit/s 10011 -384 kbit/s 10101 -1536 kbit/s 10111 -1920 kbit/s 11000 - Multirate (64 kbit/s base rate) MULT 9007 7 BITS Rate Multiplier Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Any value from 2 to n (maximum number of B-channels) USI 9008 5 BITS User Information Layer 1 Protocol Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bits 5 4 3 2 1 00001 - CCITT standardized rate adaption V.110 and X.30. 00010 - Recommendation G.711 u-law 00011 - Recommendation G.711 A-law 00100 - Recommendation G.721 32 kbit/s ADPCM and Recommendation I.460. 00101 - Recommendations H.221 and H.242 00110 - Recommendations H.223 and H.245 00111 - Non-ITU-T standardized rate adaption. 01000 - ITU-T standardized rate adaption V.120. 01001 - CCITT standardized rate adaption X.31 HDLC flag stuffing. All other values are reserved. syncasync 9009 BOOLEAN Synchronous/ Asynchronous Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Synchronous data 1 - Asynchronous data negotiation 900A BOOLEAN Negotiation Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - In-band negotiation possible 1 - In-band negotiation not possible Userrate 900B 5 BITS User Rate Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bits 5 4 3 2 1 00000 - Rate is indicated by E-bits specified in Recommendation I.460 or may be negotiated in-band 00001 - 0.6 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 00010 - 1.2 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 00011 - 2.4 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 00100 - 3.6 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 00101 - 4.8 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 00110 - 7.2 kbit/s RecommendationV.6 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 118]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 00111 - 8 kbit/s Recommendation I.460 01000 - 9.6 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 01001 - 14.4 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 01010 - 16 kbit/s Recommendation I.460 01011 - 19.2 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 01100 - 32 kbit/s Recommendation I.460 01101 - 38.4 kbit/s Recommendation V.110 01110 - 48 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 01111 - 56 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 10010 - 57.6 kbit/s Recommendation V.14 extended 10011 - 28.8 kbit/s Recommendation V.110 10100 - 24 kbit/s Recommendation V.110 10101 - 0.1345 kbit/s Recommendation X.1 10110 - 0.100 kbit/s Recommendation X.1 10111 - 0.075/1.2 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11000 - 1.2/0.075 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11001 - 0.050 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11010 - 0.075 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11011 - 0.110 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11100 - 0.150 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11101 - 0.200 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11110 - 0.300 kbit/s Recommendations V.6 and X.1 11111 - 12 kbit/s Recommendation V.6 All other values are reserved. INTRATE 900C 2 BITS Intermediate Rate Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 2 1 00 - Not used 01 - 8 kbit/s 10 - 16 kbit/s 11 - 32 kbit/s nictx 900D BOOLEAN Network Independent Clock (NIC) on transmission Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Not required to send data with network independent clock 1 - Required to send data with network independent clock nicrx 900E BOOLEAN Network independent clock (NIC) on reception Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Cannot accept data with network independent clock (i.e. sender does not support this optional procedure) 1 - Can accept data with network independent clock (i.e. sender does support this optional procedure) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 119]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 flowconttx 900F BOOLEAN Flow Control on transmission (Tx) Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Not required to send data with flow control mechanism 1 - Required to send data with flow control mechanism flowcontrx 9010 BOOLEAN Flow control on reception (Rx) Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Cannot accept data with flow control mechanism (i.e. sender does not support this optional procedure) 1 - Can accept data with flow control mechanism (i.e. sender does support this optional procedure) rateadapthdr 9011 BOOLEAN Rate adaption header/no header Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Rate adaption header not included 1 - Rate adaption header included multiframe 9012 BOOLEAN Multiple frame establishment support in data link Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Multiple frame establishment not supported. Only UI frames allowed. 1 - Multiple frame establishment supported OPMODE 9013 BOOLEAN Mode of operation Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 Bit transparent mode of operation 1 Protocol sensitive mode of operation llidnegot 9014 BOOLEAN Logical link identifier negotiation Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 Default, LLI = 256 only 1 Full protocol negotiation assign 9015 BOOLEAN Assignor/assignee Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 Message originator is "Default assignee" 1 Message originator is "Assignor only" inbandneg 9016 BOOLEAN In-band/out-band negotiation Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 120]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 0- Negotiation is done with USER INFORMATION messages on a temporary signalling connection 1- Negotiation is done in-band using logical link zero stopbits 9017 2 BITS Number of stop bits Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bits 2 1 00 - Not used 01 - 1 bit 10 - 1.5 bits 11 - 2 bits databits 9018 2 BIT Number of data bits excluding parity Bit if present Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 2 1 00 - Not used 01 - 5 bits 10 - 7 bits 11 - 8 bits parity 9019 3 BIT Parity information Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 3 2 1 000 - Odd 010 - Even 011 -None 100 - Forced to 0 101 - Forced to 1 All other values are reserved. duplexmode 901A BOOLEAN Mode duplex Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) 0 - Half duplex 1 - Full duplex modem 901B 6 BIT Modem Type Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bits 6 5 4 3 2 1 00000 through 000101 National Use 010001 - Recommendation V.21 010010 - Recommendation V.22 010011 - Recommendation V.22 bis 010100 - Recommendation V.23 010101 - Recommendation V.26 011001 - Recommendation V.26 bis 010111 -Recommendation V.26 ter Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 121]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 011000 - RecommendationV.27 011001 - Recommendation V.27 bis 011010 - Recommendation V.27 ter 011011 - Recommendation V.29 011101 - Recommendation V.32 011110 - Recommendation V.34 100000 through 101111 National Use 110000 through 111111 User Specified layer2prot 901C 5 BIT User information layer 2 protocol Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 5 4 3 2 1 00010 - Recommendation Q.921/I.441 [3] 00110 - Recommendation X.25 [5], link layer 01100 - LAN logical link control (ISO/IEC 8802-2) All other values are reserved. layer3prot 901D 5 BIT User information layer 3 protocol Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bit 5 4 3 2 1 00010 - Recommendation Q.931/I.451 00110 - Recommendation X.25, packet layer 01011 - ISO/IEC TR 9577 (Protocol identification in the network layer) All other values are reserved. addlayer3prot 901E OCTET Additional User Information layer 3 protocol Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.931 (1998) Bits 4321 4321 1100 1100 - Internet Protocol (RFC 791) (ISO/IEC TR 9577) 1100 1111 - Point-to-point Protocol (RFC 1548) DialledN 901F 30 OCTETS Dialled Number DiallingN 9020 30 OCTETS Dialling Number ECHOCI 9021 Enumeration Echo Control Information echo canceler off (0), incoming echo canceler on (1), outgoing echo canceler on (2), incoming and outgoing echo canceler on (3) NCI 9022 1 OCTET Nature of Connection Indicators Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.763 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 122]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Bits 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bits 2 1 Satellite Indicator 0 0 no satellite circuit in the connection 0 1 one satellite circuit in the connection 1 0 two satellite circuits in the connection 1 1 spare Bits 4 3 Continuity check indicator 0 0 continuity check not required 0 1 continuity check required on this circuit 1 0 continuity check performed on a previous circuit 1 1 spare Bits 5 Echo control device indicator 0 outgoing echo control device not included 1 outgoing echo control device included Bits 8 7 6 Spare C.10 AAL5 Properties PropertyID Property Type Value Tag FMSDU A001 32 bit integer Forward Maximum CPCS- SDU Size: Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) Maximum CPCS-SDU size sent in the direction from the calling user to the called user. BMSDU A002 32 bit integer Backwards Maximum CPCS-SDU Size Reference: ITU Recommendation Q.2931 (1995) Maximum CPCS-SDU size sent in the direction from the called user to the calling user. SSCS See See table C.7 See table C.7 table C.7 Additional values: VPI/VCI SC See See Table C.4 See table C.4 Table C.4 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 123]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 C.11 SDP Equivalents PropertyID Property Type Value Tag SDP_V B001 STRING Protocol Version SDP_O B002 STRING Owner/creator and session ID SDP_S B003 STRING Sesson name SDP_I B004 STRING Session identifier SDP_U B005 STRING URI of descriptor SDC_E B006 STRING email address SDP_P B007 STRING phone number SDP_C B008 STRING Connection information SDP_B B009 STRING Bandwidth Information SDP_Z B00A STRING time zone adjustment SDP_K B00B STRING Encryption Key SDP_A B00C STRING Zero or more session attributes SDP_T B00D STRING Active Session Time SDP_R B00E STRING Zero or more repeat times Reference in all cases: IETF RFC2327, "Session Description Protocol" C.12 H.245 PropertyID Property Type Value Tag OLC C001 octet string The value of H.245 OpenLogicalChannel structure. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 124]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 OLCack C002 octet string The value of H.245 OpenLogicalChannelAck structure. OLCcnf C003 octet string The value of H.245 OpenLogicalChannelConfirm structure. OLCrej C004 octet string The value of H.245 OpenLogicalChannelReject structure. CLC C005 octet string The value of H.245 CloseLogicalChannel structure. CLCack C006 octet string The value of H.245 CloseLogicalChannelAck structure. Reference in all cases: ITU-T Recommendation H.245 ANNEX D TRANSPORT OVER IP (NORMATIVE) D.1 Transport over IP/UDP using Application Level Framing Protocol messages defined in this document may be transmitted over UDP. When no port is provided by the peer (see section 7.2.8), commands should be sent to the default port number, 2944 for text- encoded operation or 2945 for binary-encoded operation. Responses must be sent to the address and port from which the corresponding commands were sent except if the response is to a handoff or failover, in which case the procedures of 11.5 apply. Implementors using IP/UDP with ALF should be aware of the restrictions of the MTU on the maximum message size. D.1.1 Providing At-Most-Once Functionality Messages, being carried over UDP, may be subject to losses. In the absence of a timely response, commands are repeated. Most commands are not idempotent. The state of the MG would become unpredictable if, for example, Add commands were executed several times. The transmission procedures shall thus provide an "At-Most-Once" functionality. Peer protocol entities are expected to keep in memory a list of the responses that they sent to recent transactions and a list of the transactions that are currently outstanding. The transaction identifier of each incoming message is compared to the transaction identifiers of the recent responses sent to the same MId. If a match is found, the entity does not execute the transaction, but simply repeats the response. If no match is found, the message will be Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 125]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 compared to the list of currently outstanding transactions. If a match is found in that list, indicating a duplicate transaction, the entity does not execute the transaction (see section 8.2.3 for procedures on sending TransactionPending). The procedure uses a long timer value, noted LONG-TIMER in the following. The timer should be set larger than the maximum duration of a transaction, which should take into account the maximum number of repetitions, the maximum value of the repetition timer and the maximum propagation delay of a packet in the network. A suggested value is 30 seconds. The copy of the responses may be destroyed either LONG-TIMER seconds after the response is issued, or when the entity receives a confirmation that the response has been received, through the "Response Acknowledgement parameter". For transactions that are acknowledged through this parameter, the entity shall keep a copy of the transaction-id for LONG-TIMER seconds after the response is issued, in order to detect and ignore duplicate copies of the transaction request that could be produced by the network. D.1.2 Transaction identifiers and three-way handshake D.1.2.1 Transaction identifiers Transaction identifiers are 32 bit integer numbers. A Media Gateway Controller may decide to use a specific number space for each of the MGs that they manage, or to use the same number space for all MGs that belong to some arbitrary group. MGCs may decide to share the load of managing a large MG between several independent processes. These processes will share the same transaction number space. There are multiple possible implementations of this sharing, such as having a centralized allocation of transaction identifiers, or pre- allocating non-overlapping ranges of identifiers to different processes. The implementations shall guarantee that unique transaction identifiers are allocated to all transactions that originate from a logical MGC (identical mId). MGs can simply detect duplicate transactions by looking at the transaction identifier and mId only. D.1.2.2 Three-way handshake The TransactionResponse Acknowledgement parameter can be found in any message. It carries a set of "confirmed transaction-id ranges". Entities may choose to delete the copies of the responses to transactions whose id is included in "confirmed transaction-id Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 126]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ranges" received in the transaction response messages. They should silently discard further commands when the transaction-id falls within these ranges. The "confirmed transaction-id ranges" values shall not be used if more than LONG-TIMER seconds have elapsed since the MG issued its last response to that MGC, or when a MG resumes operation. In this situation, transactions should be accepted and processed, without any test on the transaction-id. Messages that carry the "Transaction Response Acknowledgement" parameter may be transmitted in any order. The entity shall retain the "confirmed transaction-id ranges" receivedfor LONG-TIMER seconds. In the binary encoding, if only the firstAck is present in a response acknowledgement (see Annex A.2), only one transaction is acknowledged. If both firstAck and lastAck are present, then the range of transactions from firstAck to lastAck is acknowledged. In the text encoding, a horizontal dash is used to indicate a range of transactions being acknowledged (see Annex B.2). D.1.3 Computing retransmission timers It is the responsibility of the requesting entity to provide suitable time outs for all outstanding transactions, and to retry transactions when time outs have been exceeded. Furthermore, when repeated transactions fail to be acknowledged, it is the responsibility of the requesting entity to seek redundant services and/or clear existing or pending connections. The specification purposely avoids specifying any value for the retransmission timers. These values are typically network dependent. The retransmission timers should normally estimate the timer value by measuring the time spent between the sending of a command and the return of a response. Note - One possibility is to use the algorithm implemented in TCP- IP, which uses two variables: . The average acknowledgement delay, AAD, estimated through an exponentially smoothed average of the observed delays. . The average deviation, ADEV, estimated through an exponentially smoothed average of the absolute value of the difference between the observed delay and the current average. The retransmission timer, in TCP, is set to the sum of the average delay plus N times the average deviation. The maximum value of the timer should however be bounded for the protocol defined in this Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 127]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 document, in order to guarantee that no repeated packet would be received by the gateways after LONG-TIMER seconds. A suggested maximum value is 4 seconds. After any retransmission, the entity should do the following: . It should double the estimated value of the average delay, AAD . It should compute a random value, uniformly distributed between 0.5 AAD and AAD . It should set the retransmission timer to the sum of that random value and N times the average deviation. This procedure has two effects. Because it includes an exponentially increasing component, it will automatically slow down the stream of messages in case of congestion. Because it includes a random component, it will break the potential synchronization between notifications triggered by the same external event. D.1.4 Provisional responses Executing some transactions may require a long time. Long execution times may interact with the timer based retransmission procedure. This may result either in an inordinate number of retransmissions, or in timer values that become too long to be efficient. Entities that can predict that a transaction will require a long execution time may send a provisional response, "Transaction Pending". Entities that receive a Transaction Pending shall switch to a different repetition timer for repeating requests. The root termination has a property (ProvisionalResponseTimerValue), which can be set to the requested maximum number of milliseconds between receipt of a command and transmission of the TransactionPending response. Upon receipt of a final response, an immediate confirmation shall be sent, and normal repetition timers shall be used thereafter. Receipt of a Transaction Pending after receipt of a reply shall be ignored. D.1.5 Repeating Requests, Responses and Acknowledgements The protocol is organized as a set of transactions, each of which is composed request and a response, commonly referred to as an acknowledgement. The protocol messages, being carried over UDP, may be subject to losses. In the absence of a timely response, transactions are repeated. Entities are expected to keep in memory a Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 128]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 list of the responses that they sent to recent transactions, i.e. a list of all the responses they sent over the last LONG-TIMER seconds, and a list of the transactions that are currently being executed. The repetition mechanism is used to guard against three types of possible errors: . transmission errors, when for example a packet is lost due to noise on a line or congestion in a queue; . component failure, when for example an interface to a entity becomes unavailable; . entity failure, when for example an entire entity become unavailable. The entities should be able to derive from the past history an estimate of the packet loss rate due to transmission errors. In a properly configured system, this loss rate should be kept very low, typically less than 1%. If a Media Gateway Controller or a Media Gateway has to repeat a message more than a few times, it is very legitimate to assume that something else than a transmission error is occurring. For example, given a loss rate of 1%, the probability that five consecutive transmission attempts fail is 1 in 100 billion, an event that should occur less than once every 10 days for a Media Gateway Controller that processes 1 000 transactions per second. (Indeed, the number of repetition that is considered excessive should be a function of the prevailing packet loss rate.) We should note that the "suspicion threshold", which we will call "Max1", is normally lower than the "disconnection threshold", which should be set to a larger value. A classic retransmission algorithm would simply count the number of successive repetitions, and conclude that the association is broken after retransmitting the packet an excessive number of times (typically between 7 and 11 times.) In order to account for the possibility of an undetected or in-progress "failover", we modify the classic algorithm so that if the Media Gateway receives a valid ServiceChange message announcing a failover, it will start transmitting outstanding commands to that new MGC. Responses to commands are still transmitted to the source address of the command. In order to automatically adapt to network load, this document specifies exponentially increasing timers. If the initial timer is set to 200 milliseconds, the loss of a fifth retransmission will be detected after about 6 seconds. This is probably an acceptable waiting delay to detect a failover. The repetitions should continue after that delay not only in order to perhaps overcome a transient Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 129]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 connectivity problem, but also in order to allow some more time for the execution of a failover - waiting a total delay of 30 seconds is probably acceptable. It is, however, important that the maximum delay of retransmissions be bounded. Prior to any retransmission, it is checked that the time elapsed since the sending of the initial datagram is no greater than T-MAX. If more than T-MAX time has elapsed, the MG concludes that the MGC has failed, and it begins its recovery process. When the MG establishes a new control association, it can retransmit to the new MGC. Alternatively, a MG may use a ServiceChange with ServiceChangeMethod equal to disconnected to inform the new MGC that the MG lost one or more transactions. The value T-MAX is related to the LONG-TIMER value: the LONG-TIMER value is obtained by adding to T-MAX the maximum propagation delay in the network. D.2 using TCP Protocol messages as defined in this document may be transmitted over TCP. When no port is specified by the other side (see section 7.2.8), the commands should be sent to the default port. The defined protocol has messages as the unit of transfer, while TCP is a stream-oriented protocol. TPKT, according to RFC1006 SHALL be used to delineate messages within the TCP stream. In a transaction-oriented protocol, there are still ways for transaction requests or responses to be lost. As such, it is recommended that entities using TCP transport implement application level timers for each request and each response, similar to those specified for application level framing over UDP. D.2.1 Providing the At-Most-Once functionality Messages, being carried over TCP, are not subject to transport losses, but loss of a transaction request or its reply may nonetheless be noted in real implementations. In the absence of a timely response, commands are repeated. Most commands are not idempotent. The state of the MG would become unpredictable if, for example, Add commands were executed several times. To guard against such losses, it is recommended that entities follow the procedures in section D.1.1 D.2.2 Transaction identifiers and three way handshake For the same reasons, it is possible that transaction replies may be lost even with a reliable delivery protocol such as TCP. It is recommended that entities follow the procedures in section D.1.2.2. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 130]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 D.2.3 Computing retransmission timers With reliable delivery, the incidence of loss of a transaction request or reply is expected to be very low. Therefore, only simple timer mechanisms are required. Exponential back-off algorithms should not be necessary, although they could be employed where, as in an MGC, the code to do so is already required, since MGCs must implement ALF/UDP as well as TCP. D.2.4 Provisional responses As with UDP, executing some transactions may require a long time. Entities that can predict that a transaction will require a long execution time may send a provisional response, "Transaction Pending". They should send this response if they receive a repetition of a transaction that is still being executed. Entities that receive a Transaction Pending shall switch to a longer repetition timer for that transaction. Entities shall retain Transactions and replies until they are confirmed. The basic procedure of section D.1.4 should be followed, but simple timer values should be sufficient. There is no need to send an immediate confirmation upon receipt of a final response. D.2.5 Ordering of commands TCP provides ordered delivery of transactions. No special procedures are required. It should be noted that ALF/UDP allows sending entity to modify its behavior under congestion, and in particular, could reorder transactions when congestion is encountered. TCP could not achieve the same results. ANNEX E BASIC PACKAGES This Annex contains definitions of some packages for use with the Megaco protocol. E.1 Generic PackageID: g (0x000e) Version: 1 Extends: None Description: Generic package for commonly encountered items. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 131]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.1.1 Properties None E.1.2 Events Cause ----- EventID: cause (0x0001) Generic error event ObservedEvents Descriptor Parameters: General Cause ------------- ParameterID: Generalcause (0x0001) Description: This parameter groups the failures into six groups, which the MGC may act upon. Possible values: Enumerated, "NR" Normal Release (0x0001) "UR" Unavailable Resources (0x0002) "FT" Failure, Temporary (0x0003) "FP" Failure, Permanent (0x0004) "IW" Interworking Error (0x0005) "UN" Unsupported (0x0006) Failure Cause ------------- ParameterID: Failurecause (0x0002) Description: The Release Cause is the value generated by the Released equipment, i.e. a released network connection. The concerned value is defined in the appropriate bearer control protocol. Possible Values: OCTET STRING Signal Completion ----------------- EventID: sc (0x0002) Indicates termination of one or more signals for which the notifyCompletion parameter was set to "ON". For further procedural description, see sections 7.1.11, 7.1.17, and 7.2.7. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 132]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ObservedEvents Descriptor parameters: Signal Identity --------------- ParameterID: SigID (0x0001) This parameter identifies the signals which have terminated. Type: list Possible values: a list of signals and/or sequential signal lists which have terminated. A signal outside of a sequential signal list shall be identified using the pkgdName syntax without wildcarding. An individual signal inside of a sequential signal list shall be identified using the sequential signal list syntax with the correct signal list identifier, enclosing the name of the specific signal which terminated in pkgdName syntax. Termination Method ------------------ ParameterID: Meth (0x0002) Indicates the means by which the signal terminated. Type: enumeration Possible values: "TO" (0x0001) Duration expired "EV" (0x0002) Interrupted by event "SD" (0x0003) Halted by new Signals Descriptor "NC" (0x0004) Not completed, other cause E.1.3 Signals None E.1.4 Statistics None E.2 Base Root Package Base Root Package PackageID: root (0x000f) Version: 1 Extends: None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 133]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Description: This package defines Gateway wide properties. E.2.1 Properties MaxNrOfContexts --------------- PropertyID: maxNumberOfContexts (0x0001) The value of this property gives the maximum number of contexts that can exist at any time. The NULL context is not included in this number. Type: Double Possible values: 1 and up MaxTerminationsPerContext ------------------------- PropertyID: maxTerminationsPerContext (0x0002) The maximum number of allowed terminations in a context, see section 6.1 Type: Integer Possible Values: any integer Defined In: TerminationState normalMGExecutionTime --------------------- PropertyId: normalMGExecutionTime (0x0003) Settable by the MGC to indicate the interval within which the MGC expects a response to any transaction from the MG (exclusive of network delay) Type: Integer Possible Values: any integer, represents milliseconds normalMGCExecutionTime ---------------------- PropertyId: normalMGCExecutionTime (0x0004) Settable by the MGC to indicate the interval within which the MG should expects a response to any transaction from the MGC (exclusive of network delay) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 134]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Type: Integer Possible Values: any integer, represents milliseconds ProvisionalResponseTimerValue ----------------------------- PropertyId: ProvisionalResponseTimerValue (0x0005) Indicates the time within which to expect a Pending Response if a Transaction cannot be completed. Initially set to normalMGExecutionTime or normalMGCExecutionTime as appropriate, plus network delay, but may be lowered. E.2.2 Events None E.2.3 Signals None E.2.4 Statistics None E.2.5 Procedures None E.3 Tone Generator Package PackageID: tonegen (0x0001) Version: 1 Extends: None Description: This package defines signals to generate audio tones. This package does not specify parameter values. It is intended to be extendable. Generally, tones are defined as an individual signal with a parameter, ind, representing "interdigit" time delay, and a tone id to be used with playtones. A tone id should be kept consistent with any tone generation for the same tone. MGs are expected to be provisioned with the characteristics of appropriate tones for the country in which the MG is located. E.3.1 Properties None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 135]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.3.2 Events None E.3.3 Signals Play tone --------- SignalID: pt (0x0001) Plays audio tone over an audio channel Signal Type: Brief Duration: Provisioned Additional Parameters: Tone id list ------------ ParameterID: tl (0x0001) Type: list of tone ids. List of tones to be played in sequence. The list SHALL contain one or more tone ids. Inter signal duration --------------------- ParameterID: ind (0x0002) Type: integer. Timeout between two consecutive tones in milliseconds No tone ids are specified in this package. Packages that extend this package can add possible values for tone id as well as adding individual tone signals. E.3.4 Statistics None E.3.5 Procedures None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 136]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.4 Tone Detection Package PackageID: tonedet (0x0002) Version: 1 Extends: None This Package defines events for audio tone detection. Tones are selected by name (tone id). MGs are expected to be provisioned with the characteristics of appropriate tones for the country in which the MG is located. This package does not specify parameter values. It is intended to be extendable. E.4.1 Properties None E.4.2 Events Start tone detected ------------------- EventID: std, 0x0001 Detects the start of a tone. The characteristics of positive tone detection is implementation dependent. EventsDescriptor parameters: Tone id list ------------ ParameterID: tl (0x0001) Type: list of tone ids Possible values: The only tone id defined in this package is "wild card" which is "*" in text encoding and 0x0000 in binary. Extensions to this package would add possible values for tone id. If tl is "wild card", any tone id is detected. ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters: Tone id -------- ParameterID: tid (0x0003) Type: Enumeration Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 137]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Possible values: "wildcard" as defined above is the only value defined in this package. Extensions to this package would add additional possible values for tone id. End tone detected ----------------- EventID: etd, 0x0002 Detects the end of a tone. EventDescriptor parameters: Tone id list ------------ ParameterID: tl (0x0001) Type: enumeration or list of enumerated types Possible values: No possible values are specified in this package. Extensions to this package would add possible values for tone id. ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters: Tone id ------- ParameterID: tid (0x0003) Type: Enumeration Possible values: "wildcard" as defined above is the only value defined in this package. Extensions to this package would add possible values for tone id Duration -------- ParameterId: dur (0x0002) Type: integer, in milliseconds This parameter contains the duration of the tone from first detection until it stopped. Long tone detected ------------------ EventID: ltd, 0x0003 Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 138]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Detects that a tone has been playing for at least a certain amount of time EventDescriptor parameters: Tone id list ------------ ParameterID: tl (0x0001) Type: enumeration or list Possible values: "wildcard" as defined above is the only value defined in this package. Extensions to this package would add possible values for tone id Duration: --------- ParameterID: dur (0x0002) Type: integer, duration to test against Possible values: any legal integer, expressed in milliseconds. ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters: Tone id ------- ParameterID: tid (0x0003) Possible values: No possible values are specified in this package. Extensions to this package would add possible values for tone id. E.4.3 Signals None E.4.4 Statistics None E.4.5 Procedures None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 139]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.5 Basic DTMF Generator Package PackageID: dg (0x0003) Version: 1 Extends: tonegen version 1 This package defines the basic DTMF tones as signals and extends the allowed values of parameter tl of playtone in tonegen. E.5.1 Properties None E.5.2 Events None E.5.3 Signals dtmf character 0 ---------------- SignalID: d0 (0x0010) Generate DTMF 0 tone. The physical characteristic of DTMF 0 is defined in the gateway. Signal Type: Brief Duration: Provisioned Additional Parameters: None Additional Values: ----------------- d0 (0x0010) is defined as a toneid for playtone. The other dtmf characters are specified in exactly the same way. A table with all signal names and signal IDs is included. Note that each dtmf character is defined as both a signal and a toneid, thus extending the basic tone generation package. Also note that dtmf SignalIds are different from the names used in a digit map. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 140]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Signal Name Signal ID/tone id dtmf character 0 d0 (0x0010) dtmf character 1 d1 (0x0011) dtmf character 2 d2 (0x0012) dtmf character 3 d3 (0x0013) dtmf character 4 d4 (0x0014) dtmf character 5 d5 (0x0015) dtmf character 6 d6 (0x0016) dtmf character 7 d7 (0x0017) dtmf character 8 d8 (0x0018) dtmf character 9 d9 (0x0019) dtmf character * ds (0x0020) dtmf character # do (0x0021) dtmf character A da (0x001a) dtmf character B db (0x001b) dtmf character C dc (0x001c) dtmf character D dd (0x001d) E.5.4 Statistics None E.5.5 Procedures None E.6 DTMF detection Package PackageID: dd (0x0004) Version: 1 Extends: tonedet version 1 This package defines the basic DTMF tones detection. This Package extends the possible values of tone id in the "start tone detected" "end tone detected" and "long tone detected" events. Additional tone id values are all tone ids described in package dg (basic DTMF generator package). The following table maps DTMF events to digit map symbols as described in section 7.1.14. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 141]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 DTMF Event Symbol d0 "0" d1 "1" d2 "2" d3 "3" d4 "4" d5 "5" d6 "6" d7 "7" d8 "8" d9 "9" da "A" or "a" db "B" or "b" dc "C" or "c" dd "D" or "d" ds "E" or "e" do "F" or "f" E.6.1 Properties None E.6.2 Events DTMF digits ----------- EventIds are defined with the same names as the SignalIds defined in the table found in section E.5.3. DigitMap Completion Event ------------------------- EventID: ce, 0x0001 Generated when a digit map completes as described in section 7.1.14. EventsDescriptor parameters: digit map processing is activated only if a digit map parameter is present, specifying a digit map by name or by value. Other parameters such as a KeepActive flag or embedded Events or Signals Descriptors may be present. ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters: DigitString ----------- ParameterID: ds (0x0001) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 142]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Type: string of digit map symbols (possibly empty) returned as a quotedString. Possible values: a sequence of the characters "0" through "9", "A" through "F", and the long duration modifier "L". Description: the portion of the current dial string as described in section 7.1.14 which matched part or all of an alternative event sequence specified in the digit map. Termination Method ------------------ ParameterID: Meth (0x0003) Type: enumeration Possible values: "UM" (0x0001) Unambiguous match "PM" (0x0002) Partial match, completion by timer expiry or unmatched event "FM" (0x0003) Full match, completion by timer expiry or unmatched event Description: indicates the reason for generation of the event. See the procedures in section 7.1.14. E.6.3 Signals None E.6.4 Statistics None E.6.5 Procedures None E.7 Call Progress Tones Generator Package PackageID: cg, 0x0005 Version: 1 Extends: tonegen version 1 This package defines the basic call progress tones as signals and extends the allowed values of the tl parameter of playtone in tonegen. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 143]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.7.1 Properties None E.7.2 Events None E.7.3 Signals Dial Tone --------- SignaID: dt (0x0030) Generate dial tone. The physical characteristic of dial tone is available in the gateway. Signal Type: Timeout Duration: Provisioned Additional Parameters: None Additional Values ----------------- dt (0x0030) is defined as a tone id for playtone The other tones of this package are defined in exactly the same way. A table with all signal names and signal IDs is included. Note that each tone is defined as both a signal and a toneid, thus extending the basic tone generation package. Signal Name Signal ID/tone id Dial Tone dt (0x0030) Ringing Tone rt (0x0031) Busy Tone bt (0x0032) Congestion Tone ct (0x0033) Special Information Tone sit(0x0034) Warning Tone wt (0x0035) Payphone Recognition Tone pt (0x0036) Call Waiting Tone cw (0x0037) Caller Waiting Tone cr (0x0038) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 144]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.7.4 Statistics None E.7.5 Procedures NOTE - The required set of tone ids corresponds to those defined in Recommendation E.180/Q.35 [ITU-T Recommendation E.180/Q.35 (1998)]. See E.180 for definition of the meanings of these tones. E.8 Call Progress Tones Detection Package PackageID: cd (0x0006) Version: 1 Extends: tonedet version 1 This package defines the basic call progress detection tones. This Package extends the possible values of tone id in the "start tone detected", "end tone detected" and "long tone detected" events. Additional values ----------------- tone id values are defined for start tone detected, end tone detected and long tone detected with the same values as those in package cg (call progress tones generation package). The required set of tone ids corresponds to Recommendation E.180/Q.35 [ITU-T Recommendation E.180/Q.35 (1998)]. See Recommendation E.180/Q.35 for definition of the meanings of these tones. E.8.1 Properties none E.8.2 Events Events are defined as in the call progress tones generator package (cg) for the tones listed in the table of section E.7.3 E.8.3 Signals none E.8.4 Statistics none Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 145]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.8.5 Procedures none E.9 Analog Line Supervision Package PackageID: al, 0x0009 Version: 1 Extends: None This package defines events and signals for an analog line. E.9.1 Properties None E.9.2 Events onhook ------ EventID: on (0x0004) Detects handset going on hook. Whenever an events descriptor is activated that requests monitoring for an on-hook event and the line is already on-hook, then the MG shall immediately generate an on-hook event. EventDescriptor parameters None ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters None offhook ------- EventID: of (0x0005) Detects handset going off hook. Whenever an events descriptor is activated that requests monitoring for an off-hook event and the line is already off-hook, then the MG shall immediately generate an off- hook event. EventDescriptor parameters None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 146]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters None flashhook --------- EventID: fl, 0x0006 Detects handset flash. A flash occurs when an onhook is followed by an offhook between a minimum and maximum duration. EventDescriptor parameters Minimum duration ---------------- ParameterID: mindur (0x0004) Type: integer in milliseconds Default value is provisioned Maximum duration ---------------- ParameterID: maxdur (0x0005) Type: integer in milliseconds Default value is provisioned ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters None E.9.3 Signals ring ---- SignalID: ri, 0x0002 Applies ringing on the line Signal Type: TimeOut Duration: Provisioned Additional Parameters: Cadence Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 147]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 ------- ParameterID: cad (0x0006) Type: list of integers representing durations of alternating on and off segments, constituting a complete ringing cycle starting with an on. Units in milliseconds. Default is fixed or provisioned. Restricted function MGs may ignore cadence values they are incapable of generating. Frequency --------- ParameterID: freq (0x0007) Type: integer in Hz Default is fixed or provisioned. Restricted function MGs may ignore frequency values they are incapable of generating. E.9.4 Statistics None E.9.5 Procedures None E.10 Basic Continuity Package PackageID: ct (0x000a) Version: 1 Extends: None This package defines events and signals for continuity test. The continuity test includes provision of either a loopback or transceiver functionality. E.10.1 Properties None E.10.2 Events Completion ---------- EventID: cmp, 0x0005 This event detects test completion of continuity test. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 148]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 EventDescriptor parameters None ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters Result ------ ParameterID: res (0x0008) Type: Enumeration Possible values: success (0x0001), failure (0x0000) E.10.3 Signals Continuity test --------------- SignalID: ct (0x0003) Initiates sending of continuity test tone on the termination to which it is applied. Signal Type: TimeOut Default value is provisioned Additional Parameters: None Respond ------- SignalID: rsp (0x0004) The signal is used to respond to a continuity test . See section E.10.5 for further explanation. Signal Type: TimeOut Default duration is provisioned Additional Parameters: None. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 149]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.10.4 Statistics None E.10.5 Procedures When a MGC wants to initiate a continuity test, it sends a command to the MG containing . a signals descriptor with the ct signal, and . an events descriptor containing the cmp event. Upon reception of a command containing the ct signal and cmp event, the MG initiates the continuity test tone for the specified termination. If the return tone is detected before the signal times out, the cmp event shall be generated with the value of the result parameter equal to success. In all other cases, the cmp event shall be generated with the value of the result parameter equal to failure. When a MGC wants the MG to respond to a continuity test, it sends a command to the MG containing a signals descriptor with the rsp signal. Upon reception of a command with the rsp signal, the MG awaits reception of the continuity test tone. When the tone is received before the rsp signal times out, the MG returns the applicable return tone. If the rsp signal times out, the MG removes the detection and the return tone (if that was playing). When a continuity test is performed on a termination, no echo devices or codecs shall be active on that termination. Performing voice path assurance as part of continuity testing is provisioned by bilateral agreement between network operators. E.11 Network Package PackageID: nt (0x000b) Version: 1 Extends: None This package defines properties of network terminations independent of network type. E.11.1 Properties Maximum Jitter Buffer --------------------- PropertyID: jit (0x0007) This property puts a maximum size on the jitter buffer. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 150]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Type: integer in milliseconds Possible Values: This property is specified in milliseconds. Defined In: LocalControlDescriptor Characteristics: read/write E.11.2 Events network failure --------------- EventID: netfail, 0x0005 The termination generates this event upon detection of a failure due to external or internal network reasons. EventDescriptor parameters None ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters cause ----- ParameterID: cs (0x0001) Type: String Possible values: any text string This parameter may be included with the failure event to provide diagnostic information on the reason of failure. quality alert ------------- EventID: qualert, 0x0006 This property allows the MG to indicate a loss of quality of the network connection. The MG may do this by measuring packet loss, interarrival jitter, propogation delay and then indicating this using a percentage of quality loss. EventDescriptor parameters Threshold --------- ParameterId: th (0x0001) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 151]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Type: integer Possible Values: threshold for percent of quality loss measured, calculated based on a provisioned method, that could take into consideration packet loss, jitter, and delay for example. Event is triggered when calculation exceeds the threshold. ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters Threshold --------- ParameterId: th (0x0001) Type: integer Possible Values: percent of quality loss measured, calculated based on a provisioned method, that could take into consideration packet loss, jitter, and delay for example. E.11.3 Signals none E.11.4 Statistics Duration -------- StatisticsID: dur (0x0001) Description: Provides duration of time the termination has been in the context. Type: Double, in milliseconds Octets Sent ----------- StatisticID: os (0x0002) Type: double Possible Values: any 64 bit integer Octets Received --------------- StatisticID: or (0x0003) Type: double Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 152]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Possible Values: any 64 bit integer E.11.5 Procedures none E.12 RTP Package PackageID: rtp (0x000c) Version: 1 Extends: Network Package version 1 This package is used to support packet based multimedia data transfer by means of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) [RFC 1889]. E.12.1 Properties None E.12.2 Events Payload Transition EventID: pltrans, 0x0001 This event detects and notifies when there is a transition of the RTP payload format from one format to another. EventDescriptor parameters None ObservedEventsDescriptor parameters rtppayload ---------- ParameterID: rtppltype, 0x01 Type: list of enumerated types. Possible values: The encoding method shall be specified by using one or several valid encoding names, as defined in the RTP AV Profile or registered with IANA. E.12.3 Signals None E.12.4 Statistics Packets Sent ------------ StatisticID: ps (0x0004) Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 153]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Type: double Possible Values: any 64 bit integer Packets Received ---------------- StatisticID: pr (0x0005) Type: double Possible Values: any 64 bit integer Packet Loss ----------- StatisticID: pl (0x0006) Describes the current rate of packet loss on an RTP stream, as defined in IETF RFC 1889. Packet loss is expressed as percentage value: number of packets lost in the interval between two reception reports, divided by the number of packets expected during that interval. Type: double Possible Values: a 32 bit whole number and a 32 bit fraction. Jitter ------ StatisticID: jit (0x0007) Requests the current value of the interarrival jitter on an RTP stream as defined in IETF RFC 1889. Jitter measures the variation in interarrival time for RTP data packets. Delay ----- StatisticID:delay (0x0008) Requests the current value of packet propagation delay expressed in timestamp units. Same as average latency. E.12.5 Procedures none E.13 TDM Circuit Package PackageID: tdmc (0x000d) Version: 1 Extends: Network Package version 1 This package is used to support TDM circuit terminations. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 154]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.13.1 Properties Echo Cancellation ----------------- PropertyID: ec (0x0008) By default, the telephony gateways always perform echo cancellation. However, it is necessary, for some calls, to turn off these operations. Type: boolean Possible Values: "on" (when the echo cancellation is requested) and "off" (when it is turned off.) The default is "on". Defined In: LocalControlDescriptor Characteristics: read/write Gain Control ------------ PropertyID: gain (0x000a) Gain control, or usage of of signal level adaptation and noise level reduction is used to adapt the level of the signal. However, it is necessary, for example for modem calls, to turn off this function. Type: enumeration (integer) Possible Values: The gain control parameter may either be specified as "automatic" (0xffffffff), or as an explicit number of decibels of gain (any other integer value). The default is provisioned in the MG. Defined In: LocalControlDescriptor Characteristics: read/write E.13.2 Events none E.13.3 Signals none Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 155]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 E.13.4 Statistics None E.13.5 Procedures None Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 156]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 APPENDIX A EXAMPLE CALL FLOWS (INFORMATIVE) All Megaco implementors must read the normative part of this document carefully before implementing from it. No one should use the examples in this section as stand-alone explanations of how to create protocol messages. The examples in this section use SDP for encoding of the Local and Remote stream descriptors. SDP is defined in RFC 2327. If there is any discrepancy between the SDP in the examples, and RFC 2327, the RFC should be consulted for correctness. Audio profiles used are those defined in RFC 1890, and others registered with IANA. For example, G.711 A-law is called PCMA in the SDP, and is assigned profile 0. G.723 is profile 4, and H263 is profile 34. See also http://www.iana.org/numbers.htm#R A.1 Residential Gateway to Residential Gateway Call This example scenario illustrates the use of the elements of the protocol to set up a Residential Gateway to Residential Gateway call over an IP-based network. For simplicity, this example assumes that both Residential Gateways involved in the call are controlled by the same Media Gateway Controller. A.1.1 Programming Residential GW Analog Line Terminations for Idle Behavior The following illustrates the API invocations from the Media Gateway Controller and Media Gateways to get the Terminations in this scenario programmed for idle behavior. Both the originating and terminating Media Gateways have idle AnalogLine Terminations programmed to look for call initiation events (i.e.-offhook) by using the Modify Command with the appropriate parameters. The null Context is used to indicate that the Terminations are not yet involved in a Context. The ROOT termination is used to indicate the entire MG instead of a termination within the MG. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 157]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 In this example, MG1 has the IP address 124.124.124.222, MG2 is 125.125.125.111, and the MGC is 123.123.123.4. The default Megaco port is 55555 for all three. 1. An MG registers with an MGC using the ServiceChange command: MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222] Transaction = 9998 { Context = - { ServiceChange = ROOT {Services { Method=Restart, ServiceChangeAddress=55555, Profile=ResGW/1} } } } 2. The MGC sends a reply: MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Reply = 9998 { Context = - {ServiceChange = ROOT { Services {ServiceChangeAddress=55555, Profile=ResGW/1} } } } 3. The MGC programs a Termination in the NULL context. The terminationId is A4444, the streamId is 1, the requestId in the Events descriptor is 2222. The mId is the identifier of the sender of this message, in this case, it is the IP address and port [123.123.123.4]:55555. Mode for this stream is set to SendReceive. "al" is the analog line supervision package. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 9999 { Context = - { Modify = A4444 { Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl { Mode = SendReceive, ds0/gain=2, ; in dB, ds0/ec=G165 }, Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 $ Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 158]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 m=audio $ RTP/AVP 0 a=fmtp:PCMU VAD=X-NNVAD ; special voice activity ; detection algorithm } } }, Events = 2222 {al/of} } } } The dialplan script could have been loaded into the MG previously. Its function would be to wait for the OffHook, turn on dialtone and start collecting DTMF digits. However in this example, we use the digit map, which is put into place after the offhook is detected (step 5 below). Note that the embedded EventsDescriptor could have been used to combine steps 3 and 4 with steps 8 and 9, eliminating steps 6 and 7. 4. The MG1 accepts the Modify with this reply: MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 9999 { Context = - {Modify = A4444} } 5. A similar exchange happens between MG2 and the MGC, resulting in an idle Termination called A5555. A.1.2 Collecting Originator Digits and Initiating Termination The following builds upon the previously shown conditions. It illustrates the transactions from the Media Gateway Controller and originating Media Gateway (MG1) to get the originating Termination (A4444) through the stages of digit collection required to initiate a connection to the terminating Media Gateway (MG2). 6. MG1 detects an offhook event from User 1 and reports it to the Media Gateway Controller via the Notify Command. MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Transaction = 10000 { Context = - { Notify = A4444 {ObservedEvents =2222 { 19990729T22000000:al/of}} Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 159]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 } } 7. And the Notify is acknowledged. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Reply = 10000 { Context = - {Notify = A4444} } 8. The MGC Modifies the termination to play dial tone, to look for digits according to Dialplan0 and to look for the on-hook event now. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 10001 { Context = - { Modify = A4444 { Events = 2223 { al/on, dd/ce {DigitMap=Dialplan0} }, Signals {cg/dt}, DigitMap= Dialplan0{ (0| 00|[1-7]xxx|8xxxxxxx|Fxxxxxxx|Exx|91xxxxxxxxxx|9011x.)} } } } 9. And the Modify is acknowledged. MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 10001 { Context = - {Modify = A4444} } 10. Next, digits are accumulated by MG1 as they are dialed by User 1. Dialtone is stopped upon detection of the first digit. When an appropriate match is made of collected digits against the currently programmed Dialplan for A4444, another Notify is sent to the Media Gateway Controller. MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Transaction = 10002 { Context = - { Notify = A4444 {ObservedEvents =2223 { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 160]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 19990729T22010001:dd/ce{ds="916135551212",Meth=FM}}} } } 11. And the Notify is acknowledged. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Reply = 10002 { Context = - {Notify = A4444} } 12. The controller then analyses the digits and determines that a connection needs to be made from MG1 to MG2. Both the TDM termination A4444, and an RTP termination are added to a new context in MG1. Mode is ReceiveOnly since Remote descriptor values are not yet specified. Preferred codecs are in the MGC's preferred order of choice. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 10003 { Context = $ { Add = A4444, Add = $ { Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl { Mode = ReceiveOnly, nt/jit=40, ; in ms }, Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 $ m=audio $ RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 v=0 c=IN IP4 $ m=audio $ RTP/AVP 0 } } } } } } Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 161]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 NOTE - The MGC states its preferred parameter values as a series of sdp blocks in Local. The MG fills in the Local Descriptor in the Reply. 13. MG1 acknowledges the new Termination and fills in the Local IP address and UDP port. It also makes a choice for the codec based on the MGC preferences in Local. MG1 sets the RTP port to 2222. MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 10003 { Context = 2000 { Add = A4444, Add=A4445{ Media { Stream = 1 { Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 124.124.124.222 m=audio 2222 RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 a=recvonly } ; RTP profile for G.723 is 4 } } } } } 14. The MGC will now associate A5555 with a new Context on MG2, and establish an RTP Stream (i.e, A5556 will be assigned), SendReceive connection through to the originating user, User 1. The MGC also sets ring on A5555. MGC to MG2: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 50003 { Context = $ { Add = A5555 { Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl {Mode = SendReceive} }}, Events=1234{al/of} Signals {al/ri} }, Add = $ {Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl { Mode = SendReceive, nt/jit=40 ; in ms }, Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 162]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 $ m=audio $ RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 }, Remote { v=0 c=IN IP4 124.124.124.222 m=audio 2222 RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 } ; RTP profile for G.723 is 4 } } } } } 15. This is acknowledged. The stream port number is different from the control port number. In this case it is 1111 (in the SDP). MG2 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 50003 { Context = 5000 { Add = A5555{} Add = A5556{ Media { Stream = 1 { Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 125.125.125.111 m=audio 1111 RTP/AVP 4 } } ; RTP profile for G723 is 4 } } } } 16. The above IPAddr and UDPport need to be given to MG1 now. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 10005 { Context = 2000 { Modify = A4444 { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 163]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Signals {cg/rt} }, Modify = A4445 { Media { Stream = 1 { Remote { v=0 c=IN IP4 125.125.125.111 m=audio 1111 RTP/AVP 4 } } ; RTP profile for G723 is 4 } } } } MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 10005 { Context = 2000 {Modify = A4444, Modify = A4445} } 17. The two gateways are now connected and User 1 hears the RingBack. The MG2 now waits until User2 picks up the receiver and then the two-way call is established. From MG2 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [125.125.125.111]:55555 Transaction = 50005 { Context = 5000 { Notify = A5555 {ObservedEvents =1234 { 19990729T22020002:al/of}} } } From MGC to MG2: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Reply = 50005 { Context = - {Notify = A5555} } From MGC to MG2: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 50006 { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 164]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Context = 5000 { Modify = A5555 { Events = 1235 {al/on}, Signals { } ; to turn off ringing } } } From MG2 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [125.125.125.111]:55555 Reply = 50006 { Context = 5000 {Modify = A4445} } 18. Change mode on MG1 to SendReceive, and stop the ringback. MGC to MG1: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 10006 { Context = 2000 { Modify = A4445 { Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl { Mode=SendReceive } } } }, Modify = A4444 { Signals { } } } } from MG1 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222]:55555 Reply = 10006 { Context = 2000 {Modify = A4445, Modify = A4444}} 19. The MGC decides to Audit the RTP termination on MG2. MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 50007 { Context = - {AuditValue = A5556{ Audit{Media, DigitMap, Events, Signals, Packages, Statistics }} Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 165]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 } } 20. The MG2 replies. An RTP termination has no events nor signals, so these are left out in the reply . MEGACO/1 [125.125.125.111]:55555 Reply = 50007 { Context = - { AuditValue = A5556 { Media { Stream = 1 { LocalControl { Mode = SendReceive, nt/jit=40 }, Local { v=0 c=IN IP4 125.125.125.111 m=audio 1111 RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 }, Remote { v=0 c=IN IP4 124.124.124.222 m=audio 2222 RTP/AVP 4 a=ptime:30 } } }, Packages {nt-1, rtp-1}, Statistics { rtp/ps=1200, ; packets sent nt/os=62300, ; octets sent rtp/pr=700, ; packets received nt/or=45100, ; octets received rtp/pl=0.2, ; % packet loss rtp/jit=20, rtp/delay=40 } ; avg latency } } } 21. When the MGC receives an onhook signal from one of the MGs, it brings down the call. In this example, the user at MG2 hangs up first. From MG2 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [125.125.125.111]:55555 Transaction = 50008 { Context = 5000 { Notify = A5555 {ObservedEvents =1235 { Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 166]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 19990729T24020002:al/on} } } } From MGC to MG2: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Reply = 50008 { Context = - {Notify = A5555} } 22. The MGC now sends both MGs a Subtract to take down the call. Only the subtracts to MG2 are shown here. Each termination has its own set of statistics that it gathers. An MGC may not need to request both to be returned. A5555 is a physical termination, and A5556 is an RTP termination. From MGC to MG2: MEGACO/1 [123.123.123.4]:55555 Transaction = 50009 { Context = 5000 { Subtract = A5555 {Audit{Statistics}}, Subtract = A5556 {Audit{Statistics}} } } From MG2 to MGC: MEGACO/1 [125.125.125.111]:55555 Reply = 50009 { Context = 5000 { Subtract = A5555 { Statistics { nt/os=45123, ; Octets Sent nt/dur=40 ; in seconds } }, Subtract = A5556 { Statistics { rtp/ps=1245, ; packets sent nt/os=62345, ; octets sent rtp/pr=780, ; packets received nt/or=45123, ; octets received rtp/pl=10, ; % packets lost rtp/jit=27, Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 167]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 rtp/delay=48 ; average latency } } } } 23. The MGC now sets up both MG1 and MG2 to be ready to detect the next off-hook event. See step 1. Note that this could be the default state of a termination in the null context, and if this were the case, no message need be sent from the MGC to the MG. Once a termination returns to the null context, it goes back to the default termination values for that termination. Authors' Addresses Fernando Cuervo Nortel Networks P.O. Box 3511, Station C Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 Canada E-mail: fcuervo@nortelnetworks.com Nancy Greene Nortel Networks P.O. Box 3511, Station C Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 Canada E-mail: ngreene@nortelnetworks.com Christian Huitema Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA E-mail: huitema@microsoft.com Abdallah Rayhan Nortel Networks P.O. Box 3511, Station C Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 Canada E-mail: arayhan@nortelnetworks.com Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 168]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Brian Rosen Marconi 1000 FORE Drive Warrendale, PA 15086 USA E-mail: brian.rosen@marconi.com John Segers Lucent Technologies, Room HE 303 Dept. Forward Looking Work P.O. Box 18, 1270 AA Huizen The Netherlands E-mail: jsegers@lucent.com Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 169]
RFC 2885 Megaco Protocol August 2000 Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society. Cuervo, et al. Standards Track [Page 170]

   

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